Mission in Eastern Africa—UNMIS/UNMISS
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A Sudanese civil war began in 1983. For more than two decades, the government and the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement/Army (SPLM/A) fought over resources, power, the role of religion in the state, and self-determination. In 1993 a regional peace initiative under the auspices of the Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) was launched. The UN supported the IGAD initiative over the years. On 20 July 2002, the parties signed the Machakos Protocol, in which they reached specific agreement on a broad framework. Another civil war erupted in Darfur in 2003 between the government of Sudan and its allied militia, and other armed rebel groups. For several years, the African Union (AU) led international political efforts to seek a solution to the crisis. In April 2004 a ceasefire agreement was signed, In July 2004 the AU’s political initiatives were complemented by the deployment of AU Mission in Sudan (AMIS) to monitor and observe the compliance of the parties to the ceasefire agreement. On 9 January 2005 the Government of the Sudan and SPLM/A signed a Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA). The CPA included agreements some autonomy for the south, and more equitable distribution of economic resources, including oil. On 24 March 2005 the UN Security Council (UNSC) decided to establish the UN Mission in the Sudan (UNMIS) in order to support implementation of the CPA (UNSC Res 1590/2005).
KeywordsMilitary Personnel Armed Group African Union Imminent Threat Political Aspiration
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