Advertisement

Selective Europeanization: Europe’s Impact on Spanish Migration Control

  • Margit Fauser
Chapter
Part of the Migration, Minorities and Citizenship book series (MMC)

Abstract

Immigration to southern Europe is a new phenomenon. Like Greece, Spain is being confronted with rapidly growing numbers of immigrants only in the last decade or two. In 1985, a year before Spain entered the European Community, the foreign resident population amounted to around 240,000 people — less than 0.6 per cent of the total population. Most of them were affluent retirees from European Community member states, namely the United Kingdom, Germany and Sweden. Since that time, more and more immigrant workers have arrived in Spain every year, primarily from Latin America, North Africa and Asia. At the end of 2005 almost 2.6 million foreigners were living in Spain, or more than 6 per cent of the population — in other words, ten times the number of 20 years ago. Only 22 per cent of those foreigners today are citizens of European member states. The majority are of Latin American (36 per cent) and African (23 per cent) origin, while Asians make up 6.4 per cent of the immigrant population in Spain. The recent regularization of irregular migrants during the year 2005 contributed to the latest increase in the total number of foreigners. Almost 700,000 applications — of an estimated 1.2 million irregulars in Spain — were submitted and most were granted. This should have reduced the number of irregular migrants currently living in Spain to around half a million (Ministerio de Trabajo y Asuntos Sociales 2004; Arango and Jachimowicz 2005; Ministerio de Trabajo y Asuntos Sociales 2005).

Keywords

Labour Migration Migration Policy European Norm Irregular Migrant Spanish Legislation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

Primary Sources

  1. BOE núm. 307 of 23.12.2000.Google Scholar
  2. BOE Serie D núm. 165, 22 March 1991.Google Scholar
  3. Commission of the European Communities (1991) Commission Communication to the Council and the European Parliament, SEC (91) 1855 final. Brussels: Commission of the European Communities.Google Scholar
  4. Commission of the European Communities (2003) Communication from the Commission to the Council, the European Parliament, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions on Immigration, Integration and Employment, COM (2003) 336 final. Brussels: Commission of the European Communities.Google Scholar
  5. DS Comisiones Núm. 94 of 06.11.2000.Google Scholar
  6. DS Congreso Pleno Núm. 91 of 18.05.2005.Google Scholar
  7. El País 11.02.2005.Google Scholar
  8. El País 12.02.2005.Google Scholar
  9. El País 30.01.2005.Google Scholar
  10. European Council (1999) Presidency Conclusions, Tampere, 16.10.1999.Google Scholar
  11. European Council (2002) Presidency Conclusions, Seville, 22.06.2002.Google Scholar
  12. Ministerio de Trabajo y Asuntos Sociales (2005) Informe Estadístico. Extranjerios con trajeta o autorización de residencia en vigor a 30 de septiember 2005. Madrid, Ministerio de Asuntos Sociales y Trabajo, Secretarla de Estada de Inmigración y Emigración, Observatorio Permanente de la Inmigración.Google Scholar
  13. Ministerio de Trabajo y Asuntos Sociales (2004) Anuario Estadístico de Extranjería 2003. Madrid, Ministerio de Trabajo y Asuntos Sociales, Secretarla de Estado de Inmigración y Emigración, Observatoria Permanente de Inmigración.Google Scholar

Secondary Sources

  1. Alscher, S. (2005) ‘Knocking at the Door of “Fortress Europe”: Migration and Border Control in Southern Europe and Eastern Poland’. CCSI Working Paper.Google Scholar
  2. Apap, J. P. et al. (2001) ‘Regularisation of Illegal Aliens in the European Union. Summary Report of a Comparative Perspective Study’. European Journal of Migration and Law, Vol. 2: 263–308.Google Scholar
  3. Arango, J. and M. Jachimowicz (2005) ‘Regularizing Immigrants in Spain: a New Approach’. Migration Information Source, http://www.migrationinformation.org/Feature/display.cfm?ID=331 (last accessed on 26 June 2006).Google Scholar
  4. Baldwin-Edwards, M. (1997). ‘The Emerging European Immigration Regime: Some Reflections on Implications for Southern Europe’. Journal of Common Market Studies, Vol. 35, No. 4: 497–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baldwin-Edwards, M. (1999) ‘Where Free Markets Reign: Aliens in the Twilight Zone’. In J. Arango and M. Baldwin-Edwards (eds), Immigrants and the Informal Economy in Southern Europe. London: Frank Cass Publishers, pp. 1–15.Google Scholar
  6. Börzel, T. A. (2000) ‘Why There Is no “Southern Problem”: On Environmental Leaders and Laggards in the European Union’. Journal of European Public Policy, Vol. 7, No. 1: 141–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Börzel, T. A. and T. Risse (2000) ‘When Europe Hits Home: Europeanization and Domestic Change’. European Integration online Papers (EIoP) 4(15).Google Scholar
  8. Closa, C. and P. M. Heywood (2004) Spain and the European Union. Basingstoke: Palgrave.Google Scholar
  9. Colomer, J. M. (1996). ‘Spain and Portugal. Rule by Party Leadership’. In J. M. Colomer, Political Institutions in Europe. London, New York: Routledge, pp. 170–210.Google Scholar
  10. Cornelius, W. A. (1994) ‘Spain: the Uneasy Transition from Labor Exporter to Labor Importer’. In W. A. M. Cornelius, L. Philip and James F. Hollifield (eds), Controlling Immigration: a Global Perspective. Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, pp. 331–69.Google Scholar
  11. Cuervós, C. (2005) ‘El papel de España en la política de inmigración de la Union Europea’. España en la construcción de una política de inmigración. I Seminario inmigración y Europa, Barcelona, Fundació CIDOB.Google Scholar
  12. Ette, A. and M. Fauser (2005) ‘Externalisierung der Migrationspolitik. Der britische und spanische Fall’. In S. Haug and F. Swiaczny (eds), Migration in Europa. Materialien für Bevölkerungswissenschaft, No. 115, Bundesinstitut für Bevölkerungsforschung, Wiesbaden.Google Scholar
  13. Freeman, G. P. (1995) ‘Modes of Immigration Politics in Liberal Democratic States’. International Migration Review, Vol. 29, No. 4: 881–902.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Geddes, A. and V. Guiraudon (2002) ‘The Anti-Discrimination Policy Paradigm in France and the UK: Europeanization and Alternative Explanations to Policy Change’. Theorising the Communitarisation of Migration, the University Association for Contemporary European Studies Study Group on the Evolving European Migration Law and Policy, the Foresight Centre, University of Liverpool.Google Scholar
  15. Gortázar, C. (2002) ‘Two Immigration Acts at the End of the Millenium’. European Journal of Migration and Law, Vol. 4: 1–21.Google Scholar
  16. Green Cowles, M. et al. (2001) ‘Europeanization and Domestic Change: Introduction’. In M. Green Cowles, J. Caporaso and T. Risse (eds), Transforming Europe: Europeanization and Domestic Change. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, pp. 1–20.Google Scholar
  17. Guiraudon, V. (2003) ‘The Constitution of a European Immigration Policy Domain: a Political Sociological Approach’. Journal of European Public Policy, Vol. 10, No. 2: 263–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Heywood, P. (2002) The Government and Politics of Spain. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  19. Huntoon, L. (1998) ‘Immigration to Spain: Implications for a Unified European Union Immigration Policy’. International Migration Review, Vol. 32, No. 2: 423–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Izquierdo Escribano, A. (1993) ‘The EC and Spanish Immigration Policy’. In A. Almarcha Barbado (ed.), Spain and EC Membership Evaluated. London: Pinter Publishers, pp. 293–301.Google Scholar
  21. Knill, C. and D. Lehmkuhl (1999) ‘How Europe Matters. Different Mechanisms of Europeanization’. European Integration online Papers (EIoP) 3(7).Google Scholar
  22. Kreienbrink, A. (2004) Einwanderungsland Spanien. Migrationspolitik zwischen Europäisierung und nationalen Interessen. Frankfurt am Main: IKO-Verlag für Interkulturelle Kommunikation.Google Scholar
  23. Lavenex, S. (2001) ‘The Europeanization of Refugee Policies: Normative Challenges and Institutional Legacies’. Journal of Common Market Studies, Vol. 39, No. 5: 851–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Molina, I. d. C. (2001) ‘La Adaptación a la Unión Europea del Poder Ejectutivo Español’. In C. Closa (ed.), La europeización del sistema político español. Madrid: Istmo, pp. 160–96.Google Scholar
  25. Niehus, G. F. and H. Freisinger (2004) ‘Die Außenpolitik des demokratischen Spaniens’. In W. L. Bernecker and K. Dirschler (eds), Spanien heute Politik Wissenschaft Kultur. Frankfurt am Main: Vervuert Verlag, pp. 79–119.Google Scholar
  26. Powell, C. (2003). ‘Política exterior y de seguridad de España’. Anuario Intemacional CIDOB 2002. Barcelona: CIDOB.Google Scholar
  27. Pumares, P. (2003) ‘L’immigration subsaharienne et la politique migratoire de l’Espagne’. Cahier de Migrations Internationales (54F): 52–94.Google Scholar
  28. Radaelli, C. M. (2000) ‘Whither Europeanization? Concept Stretching and Substantive Change’. European Integration online Papers (EIoP) 4(8).Google Scholar
  29. Vink, M. P. (2002) ‘Negative and Positive Integration in European Immigration Policies’. European Integration online Papers (EIoP) 6(13): 1–19.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Margit Fauser 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Margit Fauser

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations