Advertisement

ICTization beyond Urban Male Elites: Issues of Gender Equality and Empowerment

  • Kutoma J. Wakunuma-Zojer
  • Patricia K. Litho
Part of the Palgrave Macmillan Series in International Political Communication book series (PIPC)

Abstract

In the past few decades, the information and communication technology (ICT) “revolution” has promised a variety of benefits to society, including material progress and subsequent empowerment for women and men in the developing world. However, there are parallel discourses that question the promised benefits of ICTs and the extent to which the rhetoric of “empowerment,” particularly for women in traditional and rural settings, is being transformed into practice on the ground. This chapter analyses the efficacy of ICT “empowerment” projects targeted at women, especially in rural Africa. The chapter discusses two ICTs, computer-based Internet and cellular telephony, assessing mainly their political—as well as social and economic—impacts with regard to “empowerment” of rural women in Uganda and Zambia, because of the similarities in respect to women’s experiences of ICT in as far as empowerment is concerned in both these countries.

Keywords

Cell Phone Gender Equality Short Messaging Service Cellular Telephony Economic Empowerment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Burgess, A. 2004. Cellular Phones, Public Fears, and a Culture of Precautions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Butler, R. 2007. Cell Phones May Help “Save” Africa. http://news.mongabay.com/2005/0712-rhett_butler.html (accessed February 11, 2007).
  3. Cairncross, F. 1998. The Dearth of Distance: How the Communications Revolution will Change our Lives. London: Orion Business Books.Google Scholar
  4. Castells, M. 1997. The Rise of the Network Society. Cambridge, MA; Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishers.Google Scholar
  5. CAZ. 2004. 2004 End of Year Economic Requirements. Lusaka: Communications Authority of Zambia (CAZ).Google Scholar
  6. CEEWA-U. 2005. Women and Entrepreneurship Development Program-ICT Project: Annual Narrative Report. Kampala: Council for Economic Empowerment for Women of Africa-Uganda.Google Scholar
  7. Clement, A. 1994. “Computing at Work: Empowering Action by ‘Low Level Users.’” Communication of the ACM 37: 53–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cockburn, C. and S. Ormrod. 1993. Gender and Technology in the Making. London: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  9. CSO. 2004. Living Conditions Monitoring Survey Report 2002–2003. Lusaka: Living Conditions Monitory Branch, Central Statistical Office (CSO), Government of the Republic of Zambia.Google Scholar
  10. Faulkner, W. 2000. “The Technology Question in Feminism: A View from Feminist Technology Studies.” Women’s Studies International Forum 24: 79–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Government of the Republic of Zambia. 2006. National Information and Communication Technology Policy. Lusaka: Ministry of Communication and Transport.Google Scholar
  12. Hartsock, N. 1985. Money, Sex and Power: Towards a Feminist Historical Materialism. Boston: Northeastern University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Heap, N., R. Thomas, G. Einon, R. Mason, and H. Mackay. 1995. Information Technology and Society. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  14. Horst, H. A. and D. Miller. 2006. The Cell Phone: An Anthropology of Communication. Oxford and New York: BERG Publishers.Google Scholar
  15. Huyer, S. 2006. “Understanding Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment in the Knowledge Society.” In Cinderella or Cyberella? Empowering Women in the Knowledge Society, ed. N. J. Hafkin and S. Huyer, 15–49. Bloomfield: Kumarian Press.Google Scholar
  16. Huyer, S. and T. Sikoska. 2003. Overcoming the Gender Digital Divide: Understanding ICTs and their Potential for the Empowerment of Women. INSTRAW Research Paper Series 1. http://www.onlinewomeninpolitics.org/beijing12/2003_gender_ict.pdf (accessed December 27, 2008).
  17. ITU. 2008. Africa, ICT Indicators, 2007. Updated April 24, 2008. http://www.itu.int/ITU-D/ict/statistics/at_glance/af_ictindicators_2007.html (accessed September 16, 2008).
  18. Ling, R. 2004. The Mobile Connection: The Cell Phone’s Impact on Society. Boston: Morgan Kaufmann.Google Scholar
  19. Malhotra, S. and C. Boender. 2002. Measuring Women’s Empowerment as a Variable in International Development. World Bank Workshop on Poverty and Gender: New Perspectives.Google Scholar
  20. Moser, C. 1993. Gender planning and development: Theory, practice and training. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Murelli, E. and R. W’ O Okot-Uma. 2002. Breaking the Digital Divide: Implications for Developing Countries. London: Commonwealth Secretariat and SFI Publishing.Google Scholar
  22. Oxaal, Z. and S. Baden. 1997. Gender and Empowerment: Definitions, Approaches and Implications for Policy. London: BRIDGE (development-gender) Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex.Google Scholar
  23. Rowlands, J. 1997. Questioning Empowerment: Working with Women in Honduras. Oxford: Oxfam Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Roy, S. 2005. Globalization, ICT and Developing Countries: Challenges in the Information Age. New Delhi, Thousand Oaks, and London: Sage.Google Scholar
  25. Sharma, U. 2001. “Men are Real, Women are ‘Made Up’: Beauty Therapy and the Construction of Femininity.” Sociology Review 49: 100–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. UCC. 2006. Communications Sector Comparative Figures for the Period December 1996 to March 2006. Kampala: Uganda Communication Commission (UCC).Google Scholar
  27. United Nation’s WSIS Declaration of Principles. Building the Information Society: a Global Challenge in the new Millennium. http://www.itu.int/wsis/docs/geneva/official/dop.html (accessed June 26, 2008).Google Scholar
  28. Wajcman, J. 1991. Feminism Confronts Technology. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  29. Yuval-Davies, N. 1994. “Women, Ethnicity and Empowerment.” Feminism and Psychology 4: 179–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Okoth Fred Mudhai, Wisdom J. Tettey, and Fackson Banda 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kutoma J. Wakunuma-Zojer
  • Patricia K. Litho

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations