Advertisement

“By The Authority Of The Devil”: The Operation of Welsh and English Law in Medieval Wales

  • Sara Elin Roberts
Part of the The New Middle Ages book series (TNMA)

Abstract

In his Hartwell Jones Memorial Lecture of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion in 1961, T. Jones Pierce set out an imaginary scenario where Welsh law had continued to develop, and was recognized alongside English and Scots law in the House of Lords:

… the potentialities of Welsh law in the thirteenth century suggest that we could have ended with three systems of jurisprudence in these islands. In which case we might today have had a distinguished specialist in Welsh law sitting alongside his English and Scottish brethren (as Lord of appeal in ordinary) in the supreme court of the United Kingdom.1

Keywords

Thirteenth Century Legal Concept Supreme Court Latin Text Honourable Society 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 1.
    T. Jones Pierce, “The Law of Wales—The Last Phase,” in Medieval Welsh Society: Selected Essays by T. Jones Pierce, ed. J. B. Smith (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1972), 369–89, at 379.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Dafydd Jenkins, “The Significance of the Law of Hywel,” Transactions of the Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion (1977): 54–76, at 63.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Dafydd Jenkins, ed. and trans., The Law of Hywel Dda: Law Texts from Medieval Wales, The Welsh Classics 2 (Llandysul: Gomer Press, 2000), xxi.Google Scholar
  4. 6.
    Huw Pryce, Native Law and the Church in Medieval Wales (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993), 71–72.Google Scholar
  5. 8.
    Aneurin Owen, ed., Ancient Laws and Institutes of Wales, Comprising Laws Supposed to Be Enacted by Howel the Good, etc., 2 vols. (London: Eyre and Spottiswoode, 1841).Google Scholar
  6. 9.
    Arthur W. Wade-Evans, ed., Welsh Medieval Law Being a Text of the Laws of Howell the Good Namely, the British Museum Harleian MS 4353 of the 13th Century/with Translation, Introduction, Appendix, Glossary, Index and a Map (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1909), vii–x; T. M. Charles-Edwards, The Welsh Laws, Writers of Wales (Cardiff: University of Wales Press on behalf of the Welsh Arts Council, 1989), 17–21.Google Scholar
  7. 11.
    For a discussion on the reign of both Llywelyns, see Kari Maund, The Welsh Kings: The Medieval Rulers of Wales (Stroud: Sutton, 2000), 113–28 and 129–48.Google Scholar
  8. 12.
    Jenkins, “Significance of the Law of Hywel,” 75; Charles-Edwards, The Welsh Laws, 38.Google Scholar
  9. 13.
    Dafydd Jenkins, ed., Llyfr Colan: y Gyfraith Gymreig yn ôl Hanner Cyntaf Llawysgrif Peniarth 30, History and Law Series 19 (Cardiff: Board of Celtic Studies, University of Wales Press, 1963).Google Scholar
  10. 15.
    Christine James, “Tradition and Innovation in Some Later Medieval Welsh Lawbooks,” Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies 40 (1993): 152–54.Google Scholar
  11. 17.
    Jenkins, “Significance of the Law of Hywel,” 74; Hywel David Emanuel, “The Book of Blegywryd and Ms. Rawlinson 821,” in Celtic Law Papers: Studies Presented to the International Commission for the History of Representative and Parliamentary Institutions, ed. Dafydd Jenkins (Brussels: Éditions de la Librairie Encyclopédique, 1973), 163–64.Google Scholar
  12. 18.
    Hywel David Emanuel, ed., The Latin Texts of the Welsh Laws, History and Law Series 22 (Cardiff: Board of Celtic Studies, University of Wales Press, 1967), 53.Google Scholar
  13. 20.
    R. R. Davies, “The Survival of the Bloodfeud in Medieval Wales,” History 54 (1969): 343–57.Google Scholar
  14. 22.
    The laws of court have been discussed in full in Thomas Charles-Edwards, Morfydd E. Owen, and Paul Russell, eds., The Welsh King and His Court (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 2000).Google Scholar
  15. 23.
    See David Stephenson, “The Laws of Court: Past Reality or Present Ideal?” in Charles-Edwards, Owen, and Russell, eds., Welsh King and His Court, 400–414.Google Scholar
  16. 25.
    See Dafydd Jenkins and Morfydd. E. Owen, eds., The Welsh Law of Women: Studies Presented to Professor Daniel A. Binchy on His Eightieth Birthday 3 June 1980 (Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1980).Google Scholar
  17. 29.
    See Emanuel, ed., Latin Texts of Welsh Laws, 121–24, where various words in the Three Columns of Law (including the title) have been left in Welsh in the Latin text.Google Scholar
  18. 34.
    R. C. Stacey, “King, Queen, and Edling in the Laws of Court,” in Charles-Edwards, Owen, and Russell, eds., Welsh King and His Court, 47.Google Scholar
  19. 35.
    Daniel Huws, Peniarth 28: Darluniau o Lyfr Cyfraith Hywel/Illustrations from a Welsh Lawbook (Aberystwyth: National Library of Wales, 1988), Figure 6 and note.Google Scholar
  20. 36.
    A. D. Carr, Medieval Wales, British History in Perspective (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 1995), 68.Google Scholar
  21. 37.
    The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Anglo-Saxon England, ed. Michael Lapidge, John Blair, Simon Keynes, and Donald Scragg (Oxford: Blackwell, 1999), 444; it is possible that the English dishthegn also developed to be a higher ranking office.Google Scholar
  22. 53.
    Daniel Huws, Medieval Welsh Manuscripts (Cardiff: University of Wales and the National Library of Wales, 2000), 169.Google Scholar
  23. 60.
    The appropriate description “hybrid society” is used by R. R. Davies, Lordship and Society in the March of Wales (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1978), 9–10.Google Scholar
  24. 63.
    R. R. Davies, Lordship and Society, 9–10; R. R. Davies, “The Law of the March,” Welsh History Review 5 (1970–71): 156 and 25–26.Google Scholar
  25. 64.
    R. R. Davies, “The Twilight of Welsh Law 1284–1536,” History 51 (1966): 137, citing Paul Vinogradoff and Frank Morgan, eds., Survey of the Honour of Denbigh, 1334, Records of the Social and Economic History of England and Wales (London: Milford, 1914), 313–14.Google Scholar
  26. 67.
    Sara Elin Roberts, “Legal Practice in Fifteenth-Century Brycheiniog,” Studia Celtica 35 (2001): 307–323.Google Scholar
  27. 70.
    Sara Elin Roberts, “Creu trefn o anhrefn: gwaith copïydd testun cyfreithiol,” National Library of Wales Journal 32 (2002): 397–420.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Ruth Kennedy and Simon Meecham-Jones 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sara Elin Roberts

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations