Who Makes U.S. Foreign Policy? Presidential Leadership in Gulf Wars I and II
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One year after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, President George W. Bush addressed the General Assembly of the United Nations (UN), and declared that the relevance of the international organization in the twentyfirst century would depend on how it responded to the repeated failure of Iraq to comply with arms inspections. A few weeks later, the Bush administration secured a congressional resolution authorizing the use of force to institute “regime change” in Iraq. The UN Security Council followed in November with a fully unanimous resolution authorizing “serious consequences”1 in Iraq if it did not permit inspections for weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Yet when the United States invaded Iraq in March 2003, UN support had disappeared, with several Security Council members criticizing the United States for taking military action without a second resolution explicitly authorizing force. Both the war and the ongoing reconstruction in Iraq thus represent largely unilateral policy making by the Bush administration.
KeywordsForeign Policy United Nations Security Council Foreign Affair Military Action
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