When 37 year old Alfred Bitini Xuma mused on the perils of biography in 1930, he could hardly have suspected that the questions he raised would later preoccupy historians interested in his own life. Although still in the early phases of his career in 1930, Xuma (1893–1962) was destined to become one of the most influential black South African leaders of his generation. He had returned to South Africa in 1927 after 14 years of advanced study in the United States and Europe. Once back home, he became the first westerntrained African physician to practice medicine in Johannesburg


Life Story Civil Disobedience American Migration African History African Politics 
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Copyright information

© Steven D. Gish 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Auburn University MontgomeryUSA

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