On Assessing Pro-Poorness of Government Programmes: International Comparisons

  • Nanak Kakwani
  • Hyun H. Son


Governments in developing countries are increasingly considering introducing safety net programmes that provide income for the poor or for those who face a probable risk of falling into poverty, in the absence of the cash or in-kind transfers provided by such programmes. In designing such programmes, governments in developing countries are often faced with the choice between cash and in-kind transfers. Economic theory would lead us to believe that cash transfers are the preferred means of assistance. A range of economic as well as administrative considerations influence this choice (Grosh 1994; Jimenez 1993; Tabor 2002).


Poverty Line Welfare Programme Poverty Measure Headcount Ratio Relative Operating Characteristic Curve 
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© United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nanak Kakwani
  • Hyun H. Son

There are no affiliations available

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