Advertisement

Exclusionary Populism in Western Europe in the 1990s: Electoral Success and Political Impact

  • Hans-Georg Betz

Abstract

Since the late 1980s, a new type of right-wing party and movement has made considerable electoral gains in a number of liberal democracies in Western Europe. Among the most successful of these parties have been the Austrian Freedom Party (FPÖ), the Swiss People’s Party (SVP), the Belgian Flemish Bloc (VB) and the Norwegian Progress Party (FrP). Other significant parties are the Italian Northern League (LN), the Danish People’s Party (DF) and the two rival movements in France: Jean-Marie Le Pen’s Front National (FN) and Bruno Mégret’s Republican National Movement (MRN). Finally, there are several marginal parties such as the German Republicans (REP), the German People’s Union (DVU), the Danish Progress Party (FP) and the Swiss Freedom Party (FPS) (for an overview, see Betz and Immerfall, 1998; Decker, 2000; Hainsworth, 2000; Perrineau, 2001).

Keywords

Asylum Seeker Political Correctness Established Parti Populist Parti Front National 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Andersen, J. G. and Bjørklund, T. (2000) ‘Radical Right-Wing Populism in Scandinavia: From Tax Revolt to Neo-Liberalism and Xenophobia’, in P. Hainsworth (ed.), The Politics of the Extreme Right, London and New York: Pinter.Google Scholar
  2. Beirich, H. and Woods, D. (2000) ‘Globalisation, Workers and the Northern League’, West European Politics, vol. 23, no. 1.Google Scholar
  3. Betz, H. G. (2001) ‘Entre succès et échec: l’extrême droite à la fin des années quatre-vingt dix’, in P. Perrineau (ed.), Les Croisés de la société fermé, Paris: Editions de l’Aube.Google Scholar
  4. Betz, H. G. (2002) ‘Haider’s Revolution or The Future Has Only Just Begun’, in G. Bischof, A. Relinka and M. Gehler (eds.) Austria in the European Union. Contemporary Austrian Studies, vol. 10, New Brunswick; Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  5. Betz, H. G. (2004) La droite populiste on Europe: extrême et démocrate, Paris: Autremont.Google Scholar
  6. Betz, H. G. and Immerfall, S. (eds.) (1998) The New Politics of the Right, New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  7. Biorcio, R. (2001) ‘Separatistischer Regionalismus in einer reichen Region: die Lega Nord’, in D. Loch and W. Heitmeyer (eds.), Schattenseiten der Globalisierung, Frankfurt: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
  8. Blair, T. (2001) ‘Immigrants are Seeking Asylum in Outdated Law’, The Times, 4 May.Google Scholar
  9. Blocher, C. (1997) Switzerland and the Second World War: A Clarification, http://www.cins.ch/second.htm; and Switzerland and the Eizenstat Report, http://www.cins.ch/eiz.htm.Google Scholar
  10. Burger, R. (2000a) ‘Romantisches Österreich’, Leviathan, vol. 28, no. 1, p. 8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Burger, R. (2000b) ‘Austromainie oder der antiaschistische Karneval’, Merkur, vol. 54, no. 5, p. 91.Google Scholar
  12. Cohen, R. (2000) ‘A Haider in Their Future’, New York Times Magazine, 30 April, p. 57.Google Scholar
  13. Decker, F. (2000) Parteien unter Druck, Opladen: Leske & Budrich.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Delanty, G. (1995) Inventing Europe: Idea, Identity, Reality, New York: St. Martin’s Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. del Valle, A. (1999) ‘Una Spada di Damocle incombe sull’Europa’, La Padania, 23 July.Google Scholar
  16. Der Standard (2001) SORA analysis results, 26 March.Google Scholar
  17. Diamanti, I. (1996) Il male del Nord, Rome: Donzelli.Google Scholar
  18. Diamanti, I. (1997) ‘Divisi su Fisco, garanzie e federalismo’, Il Sole 24 Ore, 18 July.Google Scholar
  19. Eatwell, R. (1998) ‘The BNP and the Problem of Legitimacy’, in H. G. Betz and S. Immerfall (eds.), The New Politics of the Right, New York: St. Martin’s Press, pp. 143–55.Google Scholar
  20. El Pais (2001) Interview with Giovanni Sartori, ‘La inmigración sin límites es una amenaza’, 8 April, http://www.elpais.es/suplementos/domingo/20010408/entrevista.html.
  21. Falter, J. and Klein, M. (1996) ‘The Mass Basis of the Extreme Right in Contemporary Europe in a Comparative Perspective’, Research on Democracy and Society, vol. 3, pp. 55–9.Google Scholar
  22. FPÖ (2001), Programm für Wien, pp. 8–13.Google Scholar
  23. Gibson, R. (1995) ‘Ant-Immigrant Parties: The Roots of Their Sucess’, International Issues, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 119–30.Google Scholar
  24. Givens, T. E. (2000) Gender Differences in Support for Radical Right, Anti-Immigrant Political Parties, The Center for Comparative Immigration Studies, University of California-San Diego, Working Paper no. 6, 21 March.Google Scholar
  25. Goot, M. and Watson, I. (forthcoming) ‘One Nation’s Electoral Support: Where Does it Come From, What Makes it Different and How Does it Fit?’ Australian Journal of Politics and History.Google Scholar
  26. Graf, J. (1997) Vom Untergang der schweizerischen Freiheit, http://www.ety.com/tell/books/jglife/01.htm. http://www.ostara.org/graf.Google Scholar
  27. Griffin, R. (2000) ‘Interregnum or Endgame? Radical Right Thought in the Post-fascist Era’, Journal of Political Ideologies, vol. 5, no. 2, p. 173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Guolo, R. (2000) ‘I nuovi crociati: la Lega a l’Islam’, Il Mulino, vol. 49, pp. 890–901.Google Scholar
  29. Haider, J. (1993) Die Freiheit, die ich meine, Frankfurt: Ullstein.Google Scholar
  30. Haider, J. (2001) ‘Der Aufstand der “Gutmenschen”’, Die Presse, 17 March.Google Scholar
  31. Hainsworth, P. (2000) ‘Introduction: The Extreme Right’, in P. Hainsworth (ed.), The Politics of the Extreme Right, London and New York: Pinter.Google Scholar
  32. Hainsworth, P. (ed.) (2000) The Politics of the Extreme Right, London: Pinter.Google Scholar
  33. Havel, V. (2001) ‘Fact or Fiction?’, Index of Censorship, vol. 30, no. 2, pp. 61–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ivaldi, G. (1999) ‘L’extrême droite ou la crise des systèmes de parties’, Revue Internationale de Politique Comparée, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 226–9.Google Scholar
  35. Ivaldi, G. (2001) ‘L’analyse comparée des soutiens électoraux du national-populisme en Europe occidentale. Apport et limites des grands programmes d’enquêtes transnationales (1990–1998)’, in Pascal Perrineau (ed.), Les croisés de la société fermée, Paris: Editions de l’aube, pp. 57–9.Google Scholar
  36. Keegan, J. (2000) ‘A Good Historian, A Terrible Thinker’, National Post, 14 April.Google Scholar
  37. Knigge, P. (1998) ‘The Ecological Correlates of Right-Wing Extremism in Western Europe’, European Journal of Political Research, vol. 34, pp. 262, 271.Google Scholar
  38. Linsinger, E. (2001) ‘Ressentiment zog nicht’, Der Standard, 26 March.Google Scholar
  39. Longchamp, C. (2000) ‘Die nationalkonservative Revolte in der Gestalt der SVP. Eine Analyse der Nationalratswahlen 1999 in der Schweiz’, in F. Plasser, P. Ulram and F. Sommer (eds.), Das österreichische Wahlverhalten, Vienna: Signum.Google Scholar
  40. Lubbers, M., Scheepers, P. and Billiet, J. (2001) Multilevel Modelling of Vlaams Blok Voting: Individual and Contextual Characteristics of the Vlaams Blok Vote, unpublished paper, Department of Sociology, University of Nijmegen.Google Scholar
  41. Maraffi, M. and Segatti, P. (1997) ‘Partiti ed elettori dal 94 al 96’, Italian Politics & Society, no. 47.Google Scholar
  42. Mayer, N. (1996a) ‘The National Front Vote and Right-Wing Extremism, 1988–1995’, in Extremism Protost, Social Movements and Democracy Research on Democracy and Society, vol. 3, ed. F. Weil, Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  43. Mayer, N. (1996b) ‘Rechtsextremismus in Frankreich: Die Wähler des Front national’, in J. Falter, H. G. Jaschke and J. R. Winkler (eds.), Rechtsextremismus: Ergebnisse und Perspektiven der Forschung, (PVS-Sonderheft 27), Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag, pp. 388–405.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mayer, N. (1999) Ces français qui votent FN, Paris: Flammarion.Google Scholar
  45. Mégret, B. (1999) http://www.m-n-r.com/discourswagram.htm, 16 November.
  46. Meier, T (2000) ‘Irrweg “Multikulturelle Gesellschaft” ‘, Schweizerzeit, 3 March.Google Scholar
  47. Neue Züricher Zeitung (1999) ‘Unfreiwillige Wahlhelfer: Ein Brief, die “Briefaffäre” und der Erfolg der SVP’, 10 October, p. 13.Google Scholar
  48. Perrineau, P. (1995) ‘La dynamique du vote Le Pen. Le poids du “gaucholepénisme”‘, in P. Perrineau and C. Ysmal (eds.), Le Vote de crise: L’élection présidentielle de 1995, Paris: Presses de Sciences Po, pp. 243–61.Google Scholar
  49. Perrineau, P. (ed.) (2001), Les Croisés de la société fermée, Paris: Éditions de l’Aube.Google Scholar
  50. Plasser, F. and Ulram, P. A. (2000) ‘Rechtspopulistische Resonanzen: Die Wählerschaft der FPÖ’, in F. Plasser, P. A. Ulram and F. Sommer (eds.), Das österreichische Wahlverhalten, Vienna: Signum, pp. 225–41.Google Scholar
  51. Profil (2000) ‘Haiders Kampf gegen Haiders Regierung’, 2 April.Google Scholar
  52. Schönhuber, F. (1999) ‘Der Islam und die europäische Rechte’, Nation & Europa, nos. 11/12. http://www.schoenhuber-franz.de/kolumnen/NE_2000_1999/derislamunddieeuropaeischerechte.htm.
  53. Stenographisches Protokoll, 168 (1999). Sitzung des Nationalrates der Republik Österreich, XX. Gesetzgebungsperiode, 10 May, http://www.parlinkom.gv.at (14 June).
  54. SVP Stadt Zürich (1998), ‘Ausländerkonzept’, http://www.svp-stadt-zuerich.ch/Konzept9812/Default.htm (15 June).Google Scholar
  55. SVP (1998) ‘Migrationspolitik glaubwürdig und zukunftsorientiert’, March; ‘Geld allein garantiert keine Integaration’, January 2001. Both papers can be ordered as email attachments from the party’s website. http://www.svp.ch/Deutsch/Asylinitiative/zustandegekommen.htm.Google Scholar
  56. Swyngedouw M. (1998) ‘The Extreme Right in Belgium: Of a Non-existent Front National and an Omnipresent Vlaams Blok’, in H. G. Betz and S. Immerfall (eds.), The New Politics of the Right, New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  57. Swyngedouw, M. (2001) ‘The Subjective Cognitive and Affective Map of Extreme Right Voters: Using Open-ended Questions in Exit Polls’, Electoral Studies, vol. 20, no. 2, p. 238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Taguieff, P. A. (1993/94) ‘From Race to Culture: The New Right’s View of European Identity’, Telos, nos. 98–9, p. 101.Google Scholar
  59. Ulram, P. (2001) ‘Sozialprofil und Wahlmotive der FPÖ-Wähler: Zur Modernität des Rechtspopulismus am Beispiel des Phänomens Haider’, in D. Loch and W. Heitmeyer (eds.), Schattenseiten der Globalisierung, Frankfurt a.M.: Suhrkamp.Google Scholar
  60. Wolffsohn, M. (1995) Interview with Haider, ‘… Und morgen Haider’, Bunte, 14 December, p. 114.Google Scholar
  61. ‘Morganland contra Abendland: Zwei Welten prallen aufeinander…’Google Scholar
  62. Il monito di Biffi (2000) ‘Immigrati sìm ma solo cattolici’, quotidiona.net, 13, September http://www.quotidiano.net/art/2000/09/13/1292048; http://www.admin.ch/ch/d/pore/vi/vi296.html.

Copyright information

© UNRISD 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hans-Georg Betz

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations