This book sought to provide a comprehensive account of the safety zones of the 1990s, explaining the reasons for their creation, detailing their implementation, and shedding some light on why each succeeded or failed. Moreover, in an attempt to help bridge the gap between schools of thought in International Relations that are sometimes needlessly polarized, this book developed the idea of a broadened conception of interest, suggesting that states neither operate in a purely strategic, material environment, nor in a uniquely normative and legal one. Rather, states exist in both milieus simultaneously. They seek to satisfy, in some measure, both interests associated with more narrow, short-term and self-regarding concerns, which we have labeled state interests, and interests associated with broader, long-term and international society-oriented considerations, which we have called community interests. Each of the case studies then sought to show the extent to which community and state interests interacted in complex, dynamic ways, producing particular outcomes, namely safety zones, which neither type of variable could explain on its own.


Humanitarian Intervention Safety Zone State Interest Enforcement Action Safe Haven 
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  1. 7.
    Many have suggested that safety zones, though said to provide safety within the country of origin, are in fact aimed almost exclusively at refugee containment, to the detriment of the refugees themselves. See Mikhael Barutciski, ‘The Reinforcement of Non-Admission Policies and the Subversion of UNHCR: Displacement and International Assistance in Bosnia-Herzegovina (1992–1994), International Journal of Refugee Law 8, 1–2 (1996), 49–110; Landgren, ‘Safety Zones and International Protection’; Frelick, ‘“Preventive Protection”’;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Erin D. Mooney, ‘Presence, ergo protection? UNPROFOR, UNHCR and the ICRC in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina’, International Journal of Refugee Law 7 (1995), 407–435; Inter-Agency Expert Consultation on Protected Areas (Harvard University, 23–24 February 1999): Report, 7 April 1999; and chapters by Leonardo Franco, Yves Sandoz and B. S. Chimni in International Legal Issues, eds. Al-Nauimi and Meese.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 9.
    On the issue of peace enforcement, and whether it can in fact be distinguished from war, see Mats Berdal, ‘Lessons Not Learned: the Use of Force in ‘Peace Operations’ in the 1990s’, International Peacekeeping 7, 4 (Winter 2000), 55–62, 67–68;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. and Shashi Tharoor, ‘Should UN Peacekeeping Go “Back to Basics”?’, Survival 37, 4 (Winter 1995–96), 60–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Carol McQueen 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carol McQueen
    • 1
  1. 1.United Nations Peacekeeping MissionDemocratic Republic of Congo

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