Abstract

Genocide is neither spontaneous nor episodic. Emerging from biological sciences and from philosophies that encourage and reflect those perspectives, ideas accrete and culminate in racial policies and practices that often become genocidal. These biological and philosophical antecedents began in earnest in the late eighteenth century. By the time of the Nazi rise to power, established thought-patterns about racial hierarchies had come to the fore— as “science”—in Europe and particularly in Britain and the United States. Biological race theory, which is the primary basis of modern genocide, came from within the scientific, medical, and academic communities—not from without as a political imposition by totalitarian governments. In the twentieth century, the members of the “doctorhood” that formulated, legitimized, and justified biological solutions to social and political problems not only thought, expounded, and wrote about their findings but also acted out their beliefs.

Keywords

Hepatitis Europe Bacillus Assimilation Turkey 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 1.
    Raul Hilberg, author of the seminal three-volume The Destruction of the European Jews, 3 vols. rev. edn (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2003).Google Scholar
  2. Claude Lanzmann, Shoah: An Oral History of the Holocaust (New York: Pantheon, 1985), p. 70.Google Scholar
  3. 2.
    See Vahakn N. Dadrian, German Responsibility in the Armenian Genocide: A Review of the Historical Evidence of German Complicity (Watertown, MA: Blue Crane Books, 1996).Google Scholar
  4. 5.
    Sven Lindqvist, “Exterminate All the Brutes,” trans. Joan Tate (London: Granta Publications, 1997), pp. ix–x.Google Scholar
  5. 6.
    Götz Aly, Peter Chroust, and Christian Pross, Cleansing the Fatherland: Nazi Medicine and Racial Hygiene, trans. Belinda Cooper (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1994), p. 1.Google Scholar
  6. 8.
    Eric Hobsbawm, The Age of Extremes (London: Michael Joseph, 1994), pp. 532–3.Google Scholar
  7. 9.
    Peter Rose, The Subject is Race (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1968), p. 18.Google Scholar
  8. 14.
    Stephen Jay Gould, The Mismeasure of Man (New York: W. W. Norton, 1981), p. 28.Google Scholar
  9. Leon Kamin’s The Science and Politics of I.Q. (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1977).Google Scholar
  10. 15.
    Louis Snyder, The Idea of Racialism: Its Meaning and History (Princeton, NJ: Von Nostrand, 1962), p. 137.Google Scholar
  11. 20.
    Leila Zenderland, Measuring Minds: Henry Herbert Goddard and the Origins of American Intelligence Testing (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001).Google Scholar
  12. 22.
    J. L. Talmon, “European History as the Seedbed of the Holocaust,” in Jacob Sonntag, ed., Jewish Perspectives—25 Years of Modern Jewish Writing (London: Secker & Warburg, 1980), p. 11.Google Scholar
  13. 25.
    Robert Proctor, Racial Hygiene: Medicine under the Nazis (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1988), p. 291.Google Scholar
  14. 26.
    Norman Naimark, Fires of Hatred: Ethnic Cleansing in Twentieth Century Europe (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2001).Google Scholar
  15. 29.
    Benno Müller-Hill, Murderous Science: Elimination by Scientific Selection of Jews, Gypsies and Others in Germany 1933–45, trans. George Fraser (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988), p. 46.Google Scholar
  16. 30.
    A. Mitscherlich and F. Mielke, The Death Doctors, trans. James Cleugh (London: Elek Books, 1962).Google Scholar
  17. 31.
    Robert J. Lifton, The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide (London: Macmillan, 1986), pp. 15–16.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Colin Tatz 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Colin Tatz

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations