For decades, a number of European states have learned to live with ever-present bomb threats from separatist or radical political groups, and accordingly, have developed sophisticated counter-terrorism infrastructures. ‘There was hardly a day in my political life in Spain without me visiting a funeral of a victim of terror,’ remarked EU foreign policy chief Javier Solana about his time as minister in his home country Spain.1 EU institutions reacted to these national threats, too: in 1995 the European Council in Madrid named terrorism as ‘a threat to democracy’; the Treaty of Amsterdam called for a ‘fight against terrorism’; the Vienna Action Plan in 1998 referred to it, as also did the European Council in Tampere in 1999.
KeywordsMigration Europe Syria Explosive Turkey
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Notes and references
- 40.The WEU was established in 1954, after the planned ‘European Defence Community’ (EDC) was rejected by the French National Assembly. British Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden invented — it is said in his bath — the WEU within NATO in order to solve the transatlantic and western European crisis. ‘This clever solution facilitated a rearmed West Germany (thus meeting American demands), provided a credible, institutionalised constraint on German military power (thereby alleviating French concerns), secured West German sovereignty (Chancellor Adenauer’s preoccupation) and strengthened the intergovernmental Transatlantic alliance structure (the clear British preference).’ Brian White, Understanding European Foreign Policy (Palgrave — now Palgrave Macmillan, 2001), p. 145.Google Scholar