Since 9/11, governments around the world have been struggling to describe and respond to a radically changing international security landscape, and to extrapolate lessons for domestic security and defence policy. This has not been a calm and detached intellectual exercise, but has been accompanied and influenced by a series of diplomatic shifts and other, often much noisier events: military operations in Afghanistan; improved relations between the United States and Russia; the enlargement of NATO; the opening up of the Central Asian republics, diplomatically and militarily; the non-compliance of North Korea with nuclear non-proliferation norms and practices; and Libya’s decision to declare and renounce its development of chemical, biological and nuclear weapons. At the time of writing (September 2004), disagreement over the US-1ed military action against Iraq in 2003 and its aftermath continued to divide the European Union and the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation and to undermine the United Nations Security Council. Governments have also renewed their interest in the old, cold-war problem of ‘civil defence’: how to prepare for a major attack on cities and facilities, and how to manage the consequences of such an attack for domestic society and government.


Terrorist Attack Terrorist Group Homeland Security Consequence Management Emergency Planning 
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Notes and references

  1. 1.
    On ‘catastrophic terrorism’ (deaths of 40,000 or more per event) see A. Carter, J. Deutch & P. Zelikow, ‘Catastrophic terrorism: tackling the new danger’, Foreign Affairs (November/December 1998). On ‘megaterrorism’ (deaths of 100,000 or more per event) see R. L. Garwin, ‘Are we safe yet?’ [Interview], IEEE Spectrum Online, January 2003, On ‘religious terrorism’ see M. Juergensmeyer, Terror in the Mind of God: the Global Rise of Religious Violence (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000).Google Scholar
  2. On ‘new’ terrorism, see W. Laqueur, ‘Postmodern terrorism: new rules for an old game’, Foreign Affairs (September/October 1996), and The New Terrorism: Fanaticism and the Arms of Mass Destruction (Oxford University Press, 1999).Google Scholar
  3. 2.
    See W. Laqueur, The Age of Terrorism (London: Little, Brown & Co., 1987);Google Scholar
  4. W. Reich (ed.), Origins of Terrorism: Psychologies, Ideologies, Theologies, States of Mind (Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1998);Google Scholar
  5. B. Hoffman, Inside Terrorism (London: Gollancz, 1999);Google Scholar
  6. W. Laqueur, A History of Terrorism (2001);Google Scholar
  7. D. J. Whitaker, The Terrorism Reader (London: Routledge, 2001);Google Scholar
  8. and D. C. Rapoport (ed.), Inside Terrorist Organisations (London: Frank Cass, 2002).Google Scholar
  9. 5.
    See M. Zanini and S. J. A. Edwards, ‘The networking of terror in the information age’, in J. Arquilla and D. Ronfeldt (eds), Networks and Netwars (Santa Monica: RAND, 2001), pp. 29–60.Google Scholar
  10. 8.
    See House of Commons Defence Committee (HCDC), Defence and Security in the UK: Volume I (London: The Stationery Office, 24 July 2002), para. 60.Google Scholar
  11. 9.
    For an analysis of the threat to economic targets, see D. Claridge, ‘The vanguard of the new counter-terrorism’, Security Monitor (1/4, November 2002), 13–15.Google Scholar
  12. 19.
    UK Home Office, Dealing with Disaster (UK Resilience website, third edition, downloaded 7 April 2003), chapter 1. See also HCDC, Defence and Security in the UK, paras 160–2.Google Scholar
  13. 23.
    House of Commons Committee of Public Accounts (PAC), Facing the Challenge: NHS Emergency Planning in England (London: House of Commons, HC 545, 16 April 2003), Minutes of Evidence, Appendix 1, Question 126 (i), Ev 17.Google Scholar
  14. 30.
    See K. Jeffery and P. Hennessy, States of Emergency: British Governments and Strike-breaking Since 1919 (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1983).Google Scholar
  15. 52.
    See A. Dwyer, ‘“Prudent pessimism”: the management of terrorist threats against the railways in England, Scotland and Wales’, Security Monitor (1/4, November 2002), 3.Google Scholar
  16. 53.
    B. Durodié, ‘Perception and threat: why vulnerability-led responses will fail’, Security Monitor (1/4, November 2002), 17.Google Scholar
  17. 62.
    M. Prisk, Eternal Vigilance: the Defence of a Free Society (London: First Defence, January 2003).Google Scholar

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© Paul Cornish 2005

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  • Paul Cornish

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