• Anna Ramos
  • Javier Jordán
  • Nicola Horsburgh


On 11 March 2004, nearly 911 days after 9–11, ten bombs on four packed commuter trains exploded at the height of the morning rush hour, killing 191 people and injuring more than 1,600. The victims of Spain’s worst carnage since the end of the 1936 Spanish Civil War included 15 nationalities, both immigrants and commuters, the majority working class and students, who were trapped in the steel and rubble of burst subway trains and buildings. The noise from the ambulance and police car sirens was practically the only noise heard on Madrid’s streets that day. Even the telephone network collapsed.


Armed Force Central Unit Security Force National Police European Arrest Warrant 
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Notes and references

  1. 1.
    For more information on terrorism in Spain prior to the Madrid attacks, see Paddy Woodworth, Dirty War, Clean Hands: ETA, the Gal and Spanish Democracy, 2nd edn (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003);Google Scholar
  2. Ludger Mees, Nationalism, Violence and Democracy: the Basque Clash of Identities (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003);CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Robert P. Clark, Negotiating with ETA: Obstacles to Peace in the Basque Country, 1975–1988 (Reno: University of Nevada Press, 1990);Google Scholar
  4. John L. Sullivan, ETA and Basque Nationalism (London & New York: Routledge, 1988);Google Scholar
  5. José M. Garmendia etal. Historia de E.T.A. (San Sebastián: Haranbum Editor, [Colección ‘Euskal Historia’; 9–10] 1979–1980) 2 vols.;Google Scholar
  6. Pedro Ibarra Güell, La evolución estratégica de ETA: de la ’guerra revolucionaria’ (1963) a la negociación (Donostia: Kriselu, 1987);Google Scholar
  7. Fernando Reinares et al. Violencia y política en Euskadi (Bilbao: Desclée de Brouwer, 1984);Google Scholar
  8. Femando Reinares, Patriotas de la muerte: quiénes han militado en ETA y por qué (Madrid: Taurus, 2001).Google Scholar
  9. 22.
    Oscar Jaime Jiménez, Política, terrorismo y cambio político en España, 1976–1996, (Valencia: Tirant lo Blanch, 2002). See also Home Office statistics in the struggle against ETA: Google Scholar
  10. 34.
    Centro Nacional de Inteligencia, ‘Servicios de Inteligencia y lucha contra el terrorismo’, Carlos de Cueto and Javier Jordán (ed.) Respuestas a nuevos desafíos de seguridad, (Granada: Comares, 2003), pp. 25–36.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Ana Ramos, Javier Jordán and Nicola Horsburgh 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anna Ramos
  • Javier Jordán
  • Nicola Horsburgh

There are no affiliations available

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