Since 11 September 2001, the US-1ed war against international terrorism has become a central element of global politics. On the basis of capabilities, Greece may not be considered a major player in the counter-terrorist effort. Yet for four significant reasons, Greece has assumed greater importance in this campaign: 1) Greece is situated in the EU’s southern ‘soft underbelly’, and is therefore geographically exposed to illegal immigration, mostly from the Balkans, but also from the South and the Muslim world, and to transnational organised crime; 2) Greece enjoys excellent relations with the Arab world, but is also rapidly improving its relations with Israel; 3) in August 2004, it successfully hosted the Olympic Games without incident, despite the worries of a number of security analysts; and 4) Greece had a rather sloppy anti-terrorist record for several decades, but in the past few years it has made significant improvements. Like all countries in the world today, Greece still needs to improve its domestic response, particularly in terms of training, equipment, and information-sharing on issues such as money-laundering, cyber-terrorism and cyber-crime, and prevention and consequence management of NBC terrorist attacks.
KeywordsMigration Europe Shipping Explosive Assimilation
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Notes and references
- 1.The term netwar refers to an emerging mode of conflict (and crime) at societal levels, short of traditional military warfare, in which the protagonists use network forms of organisation and related doctrines, strategies, and technologies attuned to the information age. See John Arquilla & David Ronfeldt (eds), Networks and Netwars. The Future of Terror, Crime and Militancy (Santa Monica: RAND Corporation, 2002), p. 6. Cyberwar — a concept that refers to information-oriented military warfare — is becoming an important entry at the military end of the spectrum, where the language has normally been about high-intensity conflicts. Netwar figures at the societal end of the spectrum, about low-intensity conflict, operations other than war, and non-military modes of conflict and crime. Whereas Cyberwar usually pits formal military forces against each other, Netwar is more likely to involve nonstate, paramilitary, and irregular forces — as in the case of terrorism.Google Scholar
- See Ian Lesser, Bruce Hoffman, John Arquilla, David Ronfeldt and Michele Zanini, Countering the New Terrorism (Santa Monica: RAND Corporation, 1999), p. 47.Google Scholar
- 12.For the concepts of defence diplomacy and strategic engagement, see Andrew Cottey & Anthony Forster, ‘Reshaping defence diplomacy: new roles for military cooperation and assistance’, Adelphi Paper No. 365 (London: IISS, Oxford University Press, 2004),Google Scholar
- and Andrew Cottey & Anthony Forster ‘Challenges to defence diplomacy’, Strategic Survey 1999/2000 (Oxford: IISS, Oxford University Press, 2000), pp. 39–53.Google Scholar
- 21.Thanos Dokos and Dimitris Antoniou, ‘Islam in Greece’ in Shireen Hunter (ed), Islam, Europe’s Second Religion, Center for Strategic & International Studies (Westport: Praeger, 2002), pp. 175–90.Google Scholar