Conclusion: A Three-Year Progress Report and Tackling Root Causes

  • Karin von Hippel


Europe Confronts Terrorism examines the institutional, political, security and other reforms that have taken Place in Europe in the three years since the catastrophic terrorist attacks in the United States in 2001. The tragic attacks in Madrid on 11 March 2004 — to date, the worst terror attack on European soil — demonstrated that Europe was also a target, and emphasised the necessity of decisively defeating the al-Qa’ida organisation, movement and network.


Terrorist Group Charitable Organisation International Terrorism Suicide Bomber European Arrest Warrant 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Notes and references

  1. 23.
    Rohan Gunaratna, Inside Al-Qa’ida: Global Network of Terror (London: Hurst & Co., 2002), p. 6.Google Scholar
  2. 28.
    Thomas Friedman, The New York Times, 23 October 2002.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Karin von Hippel 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karin von Hippel

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