Introduction: Europe Confronts Terrorism

  • Karin von Hippel


In the three-plus years since 11 September 2001, international support for the US campaign against terror could, on the surface, appear schizophrenic. Le Monde’s famous headline from 12 September 2001, ‘We are all Americans now’, can be sharply contrasted with the French attitude in early March 2003, when President Jacques Chirac said he would veto any UN Security Council resolution that threatened war against Iraq.


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Notes and references

  1. 9.
    For more information, see Walter Laqueur, The New Terrorism: Fanaticism and the Arms of Mass Destruction (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999);Google Scholar
  2. or Ian Lesser, Bruce Hoffman, John Arquilla, David Ronfeldt, and Michele Zanini, Countering The New Terrorism (Santa Monica: RAND Corporation, 1999) Project Air Force.Google Scholar
  3. 19.
    Bruce Hoffman, ‘Is Europe soft on terrorism?’, Foreign Policy, 115 (Summer 1999), 64.Google Scholar
  4. 24.
    See Michael Alexander and Timothy Garden, ‘Counting the cost of Europe’s security needs: the arithmetic of defence policy’, International Affairs, 77:3 (July 2001), 509–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 28.
    For a more in-depth discussion of the debate surrounding root causes, see Karin von Hippel ‘Définir les origines du terrorisme: un débat transatlantique?’ La revue internationale et stratégique, no. 51 (autumn 2003); and Karin von Hippel, ‘The roots of terrorism: probing the myths’, in Lawrence Freedman (ed.), Superterrorism: Policy Responses, special issue of Political Quarterly (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, September 2002), 25–39.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Karin von Hippel 2005

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  • Karin von Hippel

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