Neoliberalism under Crossfire in Peru: Implementing the Washington Consensus

  • Guillermo Ruiz Torres
Part of the International Political Economy Series book series (IPES)


In 1990, the political elite in Peru were deeply split along two contradictory ideological lines regarding the implementation of a free market economy. One the one hand, the traditional ruling political-economic elite and most of civil society were against free market reforms. Specifically, this coalition, which supported an economic protectionist model in which the state played a central role, was comprised of entrepreneurial associations, trade unions, political parties of the left, centre and even factions of the right, as well as social movement groups (student organizations and peasant or neighborhood associations). On the other hand, an emerging political elite linked to international financial institutions (IFIs) and transnational corporations (TNCs), were stark proponents of a free market-oriented liberalization of the economy.


Political Elite Fiscal Deficit Structural Adjustment Program International Financial Institution Social Movement Organization 
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Further reading

  1. Alexander, Kate S. (2003) ‘Poverty and Politics in Peru’, Latin American Perspectives, 30: 102–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Stern, Steve J. (ed.) (1998) Shining and Other Paths: War and Society in Peru, 1980–1995, Durham, NC: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Teivainen, Teivo (2002) Enter Economism, Exit Politics, London: Zed Books.Google Scholar

Useful websites

  1. <> A Country Study: Peru
  2. <> World Bank’s Country Profile — Peru
  3. <> Centro de Estudios y Promoción del Desarrollo
  4. <> Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos (virtual library)

Copyright information

© Guillermo Ruiz Torres 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Guillermo Ruiz Torres

There are no affiliations available

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