Prosopography

  • Alan V. Murray
Part of the Palgrave Advances book series (PAD)

Abstract

The term ‘prosopography’ differs from most of the other chapter headings in this book in that it refers not to a particular subject of scholarship, but to a form of historical inquiry. The Latin term prosopographia, from which the modern English word is derived, was coined in humanist circles in the sixteenth century; it derives from the Greek word prosopon, which is related to Latin persona and means ‘face, mask, role, person’. Prosopography is concerned with the study of the identities, lives and relationships of people in historical societies; yet while it seeks to compile and analyse information on individuals, its essential feature is that it is concerned with groups or sets of people.1 A short serviceable definition of prosopography would be ‘the compilation and analysis of data on a defined set of individuals’, and it should be stressed that prosopography goes far beyond the scope of traditional historical biography. One practical reason for this is that at least until the later Middle Ages, the nature of the surviving source material means that the amount of information necessary to write narrative biography of the traditional literary or historical type is generally restricted to relatively few monarchs, saints and bishops and a handful of other individuals, and even then, often with crucial gaps in the surviving evidence.

Keywords

Europe Syria Alla Egypt Allod 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 1.
    For a more detailed treatment of definitions of prosopography and the history of the term, particularly with regard to the medieval period, see: G. Beech, ‘Prosopography’, in Medieval Studies: An Introduction, ed. J. M. Powell (Syracuse, 1976), pp. 151–84; Neithard Bulst, ‘Zum Gegenstand und zur Methode von Prosopographie’, in Medieval Lives and the Historian: Studies in Medieval Prosopography, ed. N. Bulst and J-P. Genet (Kalamazoo, Mich., 1986), pp. 1–16, and K. F. Werner, ‘L’apport de la prosopographie a l’histoire sociale des elites’, in Family Trees and the Roots of Politics: The Prosopography ofBritain and France from the Tenth to the Twelfth Century, ed. K. S. B. Keats-Rohan (Woodbridge, 1997), pp. 1–21.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    in addition to the specialist journal Medieval Prosopography: History and Collective Biography (Kalamazoo, Mich., 1980-), one can mention two other journals with a strong prosopographical interest: Francia: Forschungen zur westeuropaischen Geschichte (Sigmaringen, 1973—) and Fruhmittelalterliche Studien (Berlin, 1967-). There is also a purely electronic publication Prosopon: Newsletter of the Unit for Prosopographical Research, accessible at <www.linacre. ox.ac.uk/prosop/home.stm>.•Google Scholar
  3. 4.
    [C Conbnental Ongins of English L D] andholders 1066–1166: A Prosopography of Post-Conquest England, comp. K. S. B. Keats-Rohan (Oxford, 2001).Google Scholar
  4. 5.
    For bibliography on individual crusades, regions, families and individuals, see the relevant sections in H. E. Mayer, Bibliographie zur Geschichte der Kreuzzuge (Hannover, 1960); H. E. Mayer and J. McLellan, ‘Select Bibliography of the Crusades’, in A History of the Crusades, ed. K. M. Setton, 2nd edn (Madison, Wisc., 1969–89), vol. 6, The Impact of the Crusades on Europe, ed. H. W. Hazard and N. P. Zacour, pp. 511–664; and Z. Hunyadi, ‘A Bibliography of the Crusades and the Military Orders’, in The Crusades and the Military Orders: Expanding the Frontiers of Medieval Latin Christianity, ed. Z. Hunyadi and J. Laszlovsky (Budapest, 2001), pp. 501–88. Bibliography cited in the remainder of this chapter is meant to be representative rather than exhaustive, and studies of single individuals are largely excluded unless they have a wider prosopographical relevance. Prosopographical study of the military monastic orders, although beyond the scope of this chapter, is also relevant to the societies of the states established by the crusades in the Levant and the Baltic countries.Google Scholar
  5. 7.
    Guibert de Nogent, Dei Gesta per Francos et cinq autres textes, ed. R. B. C. Huygens, Corpus Christianorum: Continuatio mediaevalis 127A (Turnhout, 1996), Bk 7 lines 2160–1, p. 350.Google Scholar
  6. 8.
    O. Pickering, ‘The Crusades in Leeds University Library’s Genealogical History Roll’, in From Clermont to Jerusalem: The Crusades and Crusader Societies, 1095–1500, ed. A. V. Murray (Turnhout, 1998), pp. 251–66.Google Scholar
  7. 9.
    P. R. Grillo, ‘Romans de croisade, histoires de famille. Recherches sur le personnage de Baudouin de Sebourg’, Rornania, 110 (1989), 383–95.Google Scholar
  8. 10.
    Roberti monachi Historia Iherosolimitana, Recueil des historiens des croisades, ed. Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres (Paris, 1841–1906), Historiens Occidentaux [henceforth cited as RHC Occ.], vol. 3, pp. 717–882; F. Kraft, Heinrich Steinhowels Verdeutschung der Historia Hierosolymitana des Robertus Monachus: Eine literarhistorische Untersuchung (Stragburg, 1905); B. Haupt, Historia Hierosolymitana von Robertus Monachus in deutscher Ubersetzung (Wiesbaden, 1972), pp. 223–30; S. Fuchs, ‘Die St. Galler Ubersetzung der Historia Hierosolymitana des Robertus Monachus’ (unpublished MA dissertation, University of Frankfurt am Main, 1990).Google Scholar
  9. 11.
    Historie von der Kreuzfahrt nach dem Heiligen Lande (Augsburg, 1482), fols 49r, 82v.Google Scholar
  10. 12.
    A. V. Murray, ‘The Chronicle of Zimmern as a Source for the First Crusade: The Evidence of MS Stuttgart, Wurttembergische Landesbibliothek, Cod.Don.580’, in The First Crusade: Origins and Impact, ed. J. P. Phillips (Manchester, 1997), pp. 78–106; A. V. Murray, ‘Walther Duke of Teck: The Invention of a German Hero of the First Crusade’, Medieval Prosopography, 19 (1998), 35–54.Google Scholar
  11. 14.
    R. Rohricht, Die Deutschen im Heiligen Lande: Ein chronologisches Verzeichnis derjenigen Deutschen, welche als Jerusalempilger und Kreuzfahrer sicher nachzuweisen oder wahrscheinlich anzusehen sind (ca. 650–1291) (Innsbruck,Google Scholar
  12. 1894).
    1894); R. ROhricht, Deutsche Pilgerreisen nach dem Heiligen Lande (Innsbruck, 1900).Google Scholar
  13. 15.
    C. Lauranson-Rosaz, ‘Le Velay et la croisade’, in Le Concile de Clennont de 1095 et lappel a la croisade (Rome, 1997), pp. 32–64, here 52.Google Scholar
  14. 16.
    C. Moeller, ‘Les flamands du Ternois au royaume latin de Jerusalem’, in Melanges Paul Fredericq (Bruxelles, 1903), pp. 189–202; A. V. Murray, ‘A Note on the Origin of Eustace Grenier’, Bulletin of the Society for the Study of the Crusades and the Latin East, 6 (1986), 28–30.Google Scholar
  15. 17.
    Collections of documents of relevance to crusade expeditions are too numerous to list individually. For a detailed discussion of the importance of charter evidence, see G. Constable, ‘Medieval Charters as a Source for the History of the Crusades’, in Crusade and Settlement, ed. P. W. Edbury (Cardiff, 1985), pp. 73–89.Google Scholar
  16. 18.
    Albert of Aachen, Alberti Aquensis Historia Hierosolymitana, RHC Occ., vol. 4, pp. 265–713, here pp. 299, 300, 301, 310, 383, 514, 520–4.Google Scholar
  17. 19.
    S. Runciman, A History of the Crusades, 3 vols (Cambridge, 1951–54), vol. 1, p. 313; A. V. Murray, ‘Daimbert of Pisa, the Domus Godefridi and the Accession of Baldwin I of Jerusalem’, in From Clermont to Jerusalem: The Crusades and Crusader Societies, 1095–1500, ed. A. V. Murray (Turnhout, 1998), pp. 81–102.Google Scholar
  18. 20.
    For example, H. Brassat, Die Teilnahme der Friesen an den Kreuzzügen ultra mare vornehmlich im 12. Jahrhundert (Berlin, 1970), pp. 17–32; A. Macquarrie, Scotland and the Crusades, 1095–1560 (Edinburgh, 1985); C. J. Tyerman, England and the Crusades, 1095–1588 (Chicago, 1988); M-L. Favreau-Lilie, Die Italiener im Heiligen Lande vom ersten Kreuzzug bis zum Tode Heinrichs vonChampagne (1098–1197) (Amsterdam, 1989); Les Champenois et la croisade, ed. Y. Bellenger and D. Queruel (Paris, 1989); M. Balard, ‘Les Picards et la croisade au XIIe siecle’, in Orient et Occident du IXe au XVe siecle, ed. G. Jehel (Paris, 2003), pp. 13–28.Google Scholar
  19. 21.
    J. S. C. Riley-Smith, ‘The Crusading Heritage of Guy and Aimery of Lusignan’, in Cyprus and the Crusades, ed. N. Coureas and J. S. C. Riley-Smith (Nicosia, 1995), pp. 31–45; K. Thompson, ‘Family Tradition and the Crusading Impulse: The Rotrou Counts of the Perche’, Medieval Prosopography, 19 (1998), 1–34; M. R. Evans, ‘The Ferrers Earls of Derby and the Crusades’, Nottingham Medieval Studies, 44 (2000), 69–81.//Google Scholar
  20. 22.
    J. Longnon, Les Compagnons de Villehardouin: Recherches sur les croises de la Quatrieme Croisade (Geneva, 1978). See also J. Dufournet, ‘Villehardouin et les Champenois dans la quatrieme croisade’, in Les Champenois et la croisade, ed. Bellenger and Queruel, pp. 131–47.Google Scholar
  21. 23.
    C. W. David, Robert Curthose, Duke of Normandy (Cambridge, Mass., 1920), pp. 221–9; E. M. Jamison, ‘Some Notes on the Anonymi Gesta Francorum, with Special Reference to the Norman Contingent from South Italy and Sicily in the First Crusade’, in Studies in French Lan,guage and Medieval Literature presented to Professor Mildred K. Pope (Manchester, 1939), pp. 195–204; G. Airaldi, ‘I Lombardi alla Prima Crociata’, in I Comuni italiani nel Regno crociato del Gerusalemme, ed. G. Airaldi and B. Z. Kedar (Genova, 1986), pp. 477–96; B. Figliuolo, ‘Ancora sui Normanni d’Italia alla prima crociata’, Archivio storico per le province napoletane, 104 for 1986 (1988), 1–16; A. V. Murray, ‘The Army of Godfrey of Bouillon, 1096–1099: Structure and Dynamics of a ContingentGoogle Scholar
  22. on the First Crusade’, Revue Beige de Philologie et dHistoire, 70 (1992), 301–29; M. Bull, Knightly Piety and the Lay Response to the First Crusade: The Limousin and Gascony, c. 970-c. 1130 (Oxford, 1993).Google Scholar
  23. 24.
    J. S. C. Riley-Smith, ‘The Motives of the Earliest Crusaders and the Settlement of Latin Palestine, 1095–1100’, English Historical Review, 98 (1983), 721–36; Riley-Smith, ‘The Latin Clergy and the Settlement in Palestine and Syria, 1098–1100’, Catholic Historical Review, 74 (1988), 539–57; J. S. C. Riley-Smith, ‘Families, Crusades and Settlement in the Latin East, 1102–1131’, in Die Kreuzfahrerstaaten als multikulturelle Gesellschaft. Einwanderer und Minderheiten im 12. und 13. Jahrhundert, ed. H. E. Mayer (Munchen, 1997), pp. 1–12; J. S. C. Riley-Smith, The First Crusaders, 1095–1131 (Cambridge, 1997).Google Scholar
  24. 25.
    J. S. C. Riley-Smith, ‘Casualties and the Number of Knights on the First Crusade’, Crusades, 1 (2002), 13–28.Google Scholar
  25. 26.
    J. M. Powell, Anatomy of a Crusade, 1213–1221 (Philadelphia, 1986).Google Scholar
  26. 27.
    J. S. C. Riley-Smith, ‘Family Traditions and Participations in the Second Crusade’, in The Second Crusade and the Cistercians, ed. M. Gervers (New York, 1992), pp. 101–8; J. P. Phillips, ‘The Murder of Charles the Good and the Second Crusade: Household, Nobility, and Traditions of Crusading in Medieval Flanders’, Medieval Prosopography, 19 (1998), 55–75; V. Hrochova, ‘La participation tcheque aux deuxieme et troisieme croisades’, in Le partage du monde, ed. M. Balard and A. Ducellier (Paris, 1998), pp. 279–86.Google Scholar
  27. 28.
    H. van Werveke, ‘La contribution de la Flandre et du Hainaut a la Troisieme Croisade’, Le Moyen Age, 78 (1972), 55–90; Hrochova, ‘La participation tcheque aux deuxieme et troisieme croisades’.Google Scholar
  28. 29.
    C. Tipton, ‘The English at Nicopolis’, Speculum, 37 (1962), 528–40; B. Schnerb, ‘Le contingent franco-bourguignon a la croisade de Nicopolis’, Annales de Bourgogne, 68 (1996), 59–75.Google Scholar
  29. 30.
    For example: G. Despy, ‘Des nobles hainuyers a la croisade contre les Albigeois’, in Recueil d’études dhistoire hainuyere offertes a Maurice-A. Arnould, ed. J-M. Cauchies and J-M. Duvosquel, 2 vols (Mons, 1983), vol. 2, pp. 51–8; C. Keck, ‘L’entourage de Simon de Montfort pendant la Croisade albigeoise et l’établissement territorial des crucesignati’, in La Croisade Albigeoise, ed. M. Roquebert (Balma, 2004), pp. 235–44 (the Albigensian Crusade); R. Kohn, ‘Die Teilnehmer an den Kreuzzugen gegen die Stedinger’, Niedersdchsisches Jahrbuch fiir Landesgeschichte, 53 (1981), 139–206 (crusades against the Stedinger); R. Bleck, “Ein oberrheinischer Palastina-Kreuzzug 1267’, Basler Zeitschrift ftiir Geschichte und Altertumskunde, 87 (1987), 5–27 (Upper Rhine Crusade of 1267).Google Scholar
  30. 31.
    See A. V. Murray, ‘The Prosopography and Onomastics of the Franks in the Kingdom of Jerusalem, 1099–1187’, in Onomastique et parente dans lOccident medieval, ed. K. S. B. Keats-Rohan and C. Settipani (Oxford, 2000), pp. 283–94; A. V. Murray, The Crusader Kingdom ofJerusalem: A Dynastic History, 1099–1125 (Oxford, 2000); A. V. Murray,‘The Origins of the Frankish Nobility of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, 1100–1118’, Mediterranean Historical Review 4 (1989); A. V. Murray, ‘Dynastic Continuity or Dynastic Change? The Accession of Baldwin II and the Nobility of the Kingdom of Jerusalem’, Medieval Prosopography 13 (1992), 1–28; as well as the discussion below.Google Scholar
  31. 32.
    Comte Chandon de Briailles, ‘Lignages d’Outre-Mer: Les seigneurs de Margat’, Syria, 25 (1946–48), 231–58; H. E. Mayer, Varia Antiochena: Studien zum Kreuz- Google Scholar
  32. fahrerfiirstenturn Antiochia im 12. und fruhen 13. Jahrhundert (Hanover, 1993); A. V. Murray, ‘How Norman was the Principality of Antioch? Prolegomena to a Study of the Origins of the Nobility of a Crusader State’, in Family Trees and the Roots ofPolitics: The Prosopography of Britain and France from the Tenth to the Twelfth Century, ed. K. S. B. Keats-Rohan (Woodbridge, 1997), pp. 349–59.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    J. Richard, Le comte de Tripoli sous la dynastie toulousaine, 1102–1187 (Paris, 1945); J. Richard, ‘Les comtes de Tripoli et leurs vassaux sous la dynastie antiochénienne’, in Crusade and Settlement, ed. Edbury, pp. 213–24; W. Antweiler, Das Bistum Tripolis im 12. und 13. Jahrhundert. Personengeschichtliche und strukturelle Probleme (Diisseldorf, 1991).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    W. H. Riidt de Collenberg, ‘Etat et origine du haut clerge de Chypre avant le Grand Schisme d’apres les registres du XIIIe et du XIVe siecles’, Melanges de lEcole Franfaise de Rome. Moyen Age — Temps modernes, 91 (1979), 197–332; W. H. Rudt de Collenberg, ‘The Fate of the Frankish Noble Families Settled in Cyprus’, in Crusade and Settlement, ed. Edbury, pp. 268–72; B. Arbel, ‘The Cypriot Nobility From the Fourteenth to the Sixteenth Century: A New Interpretation’, Mediterranean Historical Review, 4 (1989), 175–97; N. Coureas, ‘The Latin Elite on Cyprus: Trying to Keep Apart’, Journal of Mediterranean Studies, 10 (2000), 31–45.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    J. A. C. Buchon, Recherches et materiaux pour servir a une histoire de la domination francaise aux XIIIe, XIVe et XVe siecles dans les provinces demembrees de lempire grec a la suite de la quatrieme croisade, 2 vols (Paris, 1840); J. Longnon, ‘Les Autremoncourt, seigneurs de Salona en Grece’, Bulletin de la Societe historique de Haute-Picardie, 15 (1937), 235–76; Longnon, ‘Les premiers duces d’Athenes et leur famille’, Journal des Savants, 1973, pp. 61–80; A. Bon, La Moree franque: Recherches historiques, topographiques et archeologiques sur la principaute dAchaie, 1205–1430, 2 vols (Paris, 1969); R-J. Loenertz, ‘Genealogie des Ghisi, dynastes vénitiens dans 1’Archipel (1207–1390)’, Orientalia Christiana Periodica, 28 (1962), 121–72, 322–35; R.-J. Loenertz, ‘Les seigneurs tierciers de Negropont de 1205 a 1280’, Byzantion, 35 (1965), 235–76; T. Evergates, ‘The Origin of the Lords of Karytaina in the Frankish Morea’, Medieval Prosopography, 15 (1994), 81–114; D. Jacoby, ‘Venetian Settlers in Latin Constantinople (1204–1261): Rich or Poor?’, in Ricchi e poveri nella societa dellOriente greco-latino, ed. C. A. Maltezou (Venice, 1998), pp. 181–204.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    C. Du Fresne Du Cange, Les families dOutremer, ed. E-G. Rey (Paris, 1869).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lignages dOutremer, in RHC Lois: Assises de Jerusalem: ou, Recueil des ouvrages de jurisprudence composes pendant le XIIIe siecle dans les royaumes de Jerusalem et de Chypre, ed. le Comte Beugnot, 2 vols (Paris, 1841–1843), vol. 2, pp. 435–74.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    M-A. Nielen-Vandevoorde, ‘Un livre méconnu des Assises de Jerusalem: Les Lignages dOutremer’, Bibliothpque de lEcole des chartes, 153 (1995), 103–30; M-A. Nielen, ‘Families of Outremer: A Source of Traditional Naming Customs’, in Personal Names Studies of Medieval Europe: Social Identity and Familial Structures, ed. G. T. Beech, M. Bourin and P. Chareille (Kalamazoo, Mich., 2002), pp. 131–9.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lignages dOutremer, p. 455; R. Rohricht, Regesta Regni Hierosolymitani with Additamentum (Innsbruck, 1893–1904), nos 414, 417, 447, 448, 488a, 522.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Lignages dOutre-Mer: Introduction, notes et edition critique, ed. M-A. Nielen (Paris, 2003).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    The major editions of documents are based on the principle of provenance, and relate to the archives of ecclesiastical institutions in the Holy Land: E. de Roziere, Cartulaire du Saint-Sepulcre, in Patrologiae cursus completus, series latina, ed. J. P. Migne, 221 vols (Paris, 1834–64), vol. 155, cols 1105–202; Marquis d’Albon, Cartulaire general de lordre du Temple (Paris, 1913); H-F. Delaborde, Chartes de Terre Sainte provenant de labbaye de Notre-Dame de Josaphat (Paris, 1880); J. Delaville Le Roulx, Cartulaire general de lOrdre des Hospitaliers de Jerusalem, 1100–1310, 4 vols (Paris, 1894–1906); J. Delaville Le Roulx, ‘Chartes de Terre-Sainte’, Revue de lOrient latin, 11 (1905–08), 181–91; C. Kohler, ‘Chartes de l’abbaye de Notre-Dame de la Vallee de Josaphat (1108–1291)’, Revue de lOrient latin, 7 (1900), 108–222; Comte de Marsy, ‘Fragment d’un cartulaire de l’ordre de Saint-Lazare en Terre-Sainte’, Archives de 1’Orient latin, 2 (1884), 121–57; G. Bresc-Bautier, Le Cartulaire du chapitre du Saint-Sépulcre de Jerusalem (Paris, 1984); R. Hiestand, ‘Zwei unbekannte Diplome der lateinischen Konige von Jerusalem aus Lucca’, Quellen und Forschungen aus italienischen Archiven und Bibliotheken 50 (1971), 1–57. Calendared versions of the majority of documents from Outremer are given in ROhricht, Regesta Regni Hierosolymitani with Additamentum, whose numbers (generally cited with the abbreviation RRH) are usually given as a form of quick reference in much published work. The only significant collection of documents from Outremer organized according to issuer rather than provenance is the edition of documents of the kings of Jerusalem currently being prepared by H. E. Mayer.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    H. Pirie-Gordon, ‘The Reigning Princes of Galilee’, English Historical Review, 27 (1912), 445–61; J. L. La Monte, ‘The Viscounts of Naplouse in the Twelfth Century’, Syria, 19 (1938), 272–8; J. L. La Monte, ‘The Lords of Caesarea in the Period of the Crusades’, Speculum, 22 (1947), 145–61; J. L. La Monte, ‘The Lords of Sidon in the 12th and 13th Centuries’, Byzantion, 17 (1944–45), 183–211; M. E. Nickerson, ‘The Seigneurie of Beirut in the 12th Century and the Brisebarre Family of Beirut-Blanchegarde’, Byzantion, 19 (1949), 141–85; J. L. La Monte and N. Downs, ‘The Lords of Bethsan in the Kingdom of Jerusalem and Cyprus’, Medievalia et Humanistica, 6 (1950), 57–75; H. E. Mayer, ‘Die Herrschaftsbildung in Hebron’, Zeitschrift des Deutschen PaldstinaUereins, 101 (1985), 64–82; H. E. Mayer, ‘The Origins of the County of Jaffa’, Israel Exploration Journal, 35 (1985), 35–45; H. E. Mayer, ‘The Origins of the Lordships of Ramla and Lydda in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem’, Speculum, 60 (1985), 537–52; H. E. Mayer, Die Kreuzfahrerherrschaft Montreal (Sobak): Jordanien im 12. Jahrhundert (Wiesbaden, 1990); H. E. Mayer, ‘The Crusader Principality of Galilee between Saint-Omer and Bures-sur-Yvette’, in Itinéraires dOrient: Hommages a Claude Cahen, ed. R. Curiel and R. Gyselen (Bures-surYvette), 1994, pp. 157–67; M. Rheinheimer, Das Kreuzfahrerflirstentum Galilaa (Frankfurt am Main, 1990).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    J. L. La Monte, ‘The Lords of Le Puiset on the Crusades’, Speculum, 17 (1942), 100–18; W. H. Rudt de Collenberg, ‘Les premiers Ibelins’, Le Moyen Age, 71 (1965), 433–74; H. E. Mayer, ‘Carving Up Crusaders: The Early Ibelins and Ramlas’, in Outremer: Studies in the History of the Crusading Kingdom of Jerusalem presented to Joshua Prawer, ed. B. Z. Kedar, H. E. Mayer and R. C. Smail (Jerusalem, 1982), pp. 101–18; H. E. Mayer, ‘John of Jaffa, his Opponents, and His Fiefs’, Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society, 128 (1984), 134–63; H. E. Mayer, ‘Manasses of Hierges in East and West’, Revue Belge de Philologie et dHistoire, 66 (1988), 757–66; Murray, ‘A Note on the Origin of Eustace Grenier’; P. W. Edbury, John of lbelin and the Kingdom of Jerusalem (Woodbridge, 1997).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Riley-Smith, ‘The Motives of the Earliest Crusaders and the Settlement of Latin Palestine’; Riley-Smith, ‘The Latin Clergy and the Settlement in Palestine and Syria’.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Riley-Smith, The First Crusaders; Riley-Smith, ‘Families, Crusades and Settlement in the Latin East’; J. P. Phillips, Defenders of the Holy Land: Relations Between the Latin East and the West, 1119–1187 (Oxford, 1996).Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    B. Hamilton, ‘The Elephant of Christ: Reynald of Chatillon’, in Religious Motivation: Biographical and Sociological Problems for the Church Historian, ed. D. Baker, Studies in Church History, 15 (1978), 97–108; B. Hamilton, ‘Miles of Plancy and the Fief of Beirut’, in The Horns of Hattin, ed. B. Z. Kedar (Jerusalem, 1992), pp. 136–46; H. E. Mayer, ‘The Beginnings of King Amalric of Jerusalem’, in ibid., pp. 121–35; H. E. Mayer, ‘Die Legitimitat Balduins IV. von Jerusalem und das Testament der Agnes von Courtenay’, Historisches Jahrbuch, 108 (1988), 63–89; J. S. C. Riley-Smith, The Feudal Nobility and the Kingdom of Jerusalem, 1174–1277 (London, 1973).Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    P. W. Edbury, ‘Propaganda and Faction in the Kingdom of Jerusalem: The Background to Hattin’, in Crusaders and Muslims in Twelfth-Century Syria, ed. Maya Shatzmiller (Leiden, 1993), pp. 173–89.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    C. Tischler, Die Burgenses von Jerusalem im 12. Jahrhundert. Eine Prosopographie ilber die nichtadligen Einwohner Jerusalems von 1120 bis 1187 (Frankfurt am Main, 2000).Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    B. Hamilton, ‘Women in the Crusader States: The Queens of Jerusalem 1100–1190’, in Medieval Women, ed. D. Baker, Studies in Church History: Subsidia, 1 (1978), pp. 143–74; B. Hamilton, ‘The Titular Nobility of the Latin East: The Case of Agnes of Courtenay’, in Crusade and Settlement, ed. Edbury, pp. 197–203; H. Houben, ‘Adelaide “del Vasto” nella storia del Regno di Sicilia’, in Bianca Lancia DAgliano: Fra il Piemonte e il Regno di Siicilia, ed. R. Bordone (Alessandria, 1992), pp. 121–45; S. Lambert, ‘Queen or Consort: Rulership and Politics in the Latin East, 1118–1228’, in Queens and Queenship in Medieval Europe, ed. A. J. Duggan (Woodbridge, 1997), pp. 153–69.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    R. B. C. Huygens, ‘Guillaume de Tyr étudiant: un chapitre (XIX,12) de son Histoire retrouvé’, Latomus, 21 (1962), 811–29; H. E. Mayer, ‘Guillaume de Tyr a 1’ecole’, Mémoires de lAcademie des sciences, arts et belles-lettres de Dijon, 117 (1985–86), 257–65; Mayer, Bistumer, Kloster und Stifte im Konigreich Jerusalem; H. E. Mayer, ‘Fontevrault und Bethanien. Kirchliches Leben in Anjou und Jerusalem im 12. Jahrhundert’, Zeitschrift f¿ir Kirchengeschichte, 102 (1991), 14–44; H. E. Mayer, ‘Einwanderer in der Kanzlei und am Hof der Kreuzfahrerkonige von Jerusalem’, in Die Kreuzfahrerstaaten als multikulturelle Gesellschaft, pp. 25–42; H. E. Mayer, ‘Frederick of Laroche, bishop of Acre and archbishop of Tyre’, Tel Aviver Jahrbuch fiir deutsche Geschichte, 22 (1993), 59–72; R. Hiestand, ‘Zum Leben und zur Laufbahn Wilhelms von Tyrus’, Deutsches Archiv fii‘ r Erforschung des Mittelalters, 34 (1978), 345–80; P. W. Edbury and J. G. Rowe, ‘William of Tyre and the Patriarchal Election of 1180’, English Historical Review, 93 (1978), 1–25; B. Z. Kedar, ‘Gerard of Nazareth, a Neglected Twelfth Century Writer in the Latin East’, Dumbarton Oaks Papers, 37 (1983), 55–77; B. Z. Kedar, ‘The Patriarch Eraclius’, in Outremer, ed. Kedar et al., pp. 177–204; J. S. C. Riley-Smith, ‘Latin Titular Bishops in Palestine and Syria, 1137–1291’, Catholic Historical Review, 64 (1978), 1–15; R. Hiestand, ‘Der lateinische Klerus der Kreuzfahrerstaaten: geographische Herkunft und politische Rolle’, in Die Kreuzfahrerstaaten als multikulturelle Gesellschaft, pp. 43–68; M. Matzke, Daibert von Pisa. Zwischen Pisa, Papst und erstern Kreuzzug (Sigmaringen, 1998); K-P. Kirstein, Die lateinischen Patriarchen von Jerusalem: Von der Eroberung der heiligen Stadt durch die Kreuzfahrer 1099 bis zum Ende der Kreuzfahrerstaaten 1291 (Berlin, 2002).Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    M-A. Nielen, ‘Families of Outremer: A Source of Traditional Naming Customs’; I. Shagrir, Naming Patterns in the Latin Kingdom ofJerusalem (Oxford, 2003).Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    For example: L. Toulmin-Smith, Expeditions to Prussia and the Holy Land Made by Henry Earl of Derby, Camden Second Series, 52 (London, 1894); F. R. H. Du Boulay, ‘Henry of Derby’s Expeditions to Prussia 1390–1 and 1392’, in The Reign of Richard II, ed. F. R. H. Du Boulay and C. Barron (London, 1971), pp. 153–72; Macquarrie, Scotland and the Crusades; Tyerman, England and the Crusade; Studien iiber die Anfange der Mission in Livland, ed. M. Hellmann (Sigmaringen, 1989).Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    W. Paravicini, Die PreuAenreisen des europaischen Adels, 2 vols to date (Sigmaringen, 1989-). See also W. Paravicini, ‘Die Preussenreisen des europaischenAdels’, Historische Zeitschrift, 232 (1981), 25–38; W. Paravicini, ‘Edelleute, Hansen, Brugger Burger: Die Finanzierung der westeuropaischen Preussenreisen im 14. Jahrhundert’, Hansische Geschichtsblätter, 104 (1986), 5–20; W. Paravicini, ‘Heraldische Quellen zur Geschichte der Preussenreisen im 14. Jahrhundert’, in Werkstatt des Historikers der mittelalterlichen Ritterorden, ed. Z. H. Nowak (Toruri, 1987), pp. 111–34.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alan V. Murray

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations