Crusading and Canon Law

  • James Muldoon
Part of the Palgrave Advances book series (PAD)


At first glance war and law seem to be an unlikely pairing. After all, war suggests the breakdown of lawful order so that the end of war suggests the restoration of law and order. Since there appears to be little likelihood that violence will disappear from human society, however, if violence cannot be eliminated, bringing it under some control is the next best solution. The law of war, a web of laws, customs and practices designed to identify the legitimate bases for going to war and to regulate the exercise of armed force in the course of a war, gradually developed.


Sixteenth Century Twelfth Century Reform Movement Christian Society Henry Versus 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    On the laws of war generally, see M. H. Keen, The Laws of War in the Later Middle Ages (London, 1965).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    S. Chodorow, Christian Political Theory and Church Politics in the Mid-Twelfth Century: The Ecclesiology of Gratians Decretum (Berkeley, 1972), p. 7.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    J. A. Brundage, Medieval Canon Law and the Crusader [henceforth cited as Canon Law and the Crusader] (Madison, 1969), pp. 189–90.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    In addition to Canon Law and the Crusader, see also Brundage’s The Crusade, Holy War and Canon Law (Aldershot, 1991) which reprints many of his articles on the topic. The other work is M. Villey, La Croisade: essai sur la formation dune théorie juridique (Paris, 1942).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    The origins of the Decretum are quite obscure: see J. A. Brundage, Medieval Canon Law (London, 1995) for a brief survey of the history and structure of the canon law. More recently A. Winroth in The Making of Gratians Decretum (Cambridge, 2000) has challenged almost all of what has been believed about Gratian and the Decretum. Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    J. N. Figgis, Political Thought From Gerson to Grotius 1414–1625 (New York, 1960), p. 5.Google Scholar
  7. 8.
    F. H. Russell, The Just War in the Middle Ages (Cambridge, 1975), pp. 16, 56.Google Scholar
  8. 9.
    C. Erdmann, Die Entstehung des Kreuzzugsgedankens (Stuttgart, 1935), translated as The Origin of the Idea of the Crusade, trans. M. W. Baldwin and W. Goffart (Princeton, 1977), pp. 31–2.Google Scholar
  9. 10.
    On these peace movements, see The Peace of God: Social Violence and Religious Response in France around the Year 1000, ed. T. Head and R. Landes (Ithaca, NY, 1992).Google Scholar
  10. 11.
    T. Mastnak, Crusading Peace: Christendom, the Muslim World, and Western Political Order (Berkeley, 2002), pp. 43–4.Google Scholar
  11. 12.
    The First Crusade: The Chronicle of Fulcher of Chartres and Other Source Material, ed. E. Peters, 2nd edn (Philadelphia, 1998), p. 27.Google Scholar
  12. 13.
    Ibid., p. 28.Google Scholar
  13. 22.
    J. A. Brundage, ‘The Votive Obligations of Crusaders: The Development of a Canonistic Doctrine’, Traditio, 24 (1968), 77–118 at 77.Google Scholar
  14. 24.
    J. A. Brundage, ‘The Crusader’s Wife: a Canonistic Quandary’, Studia Gratiana, 12 (1967), 427–41 at 435.Google Scholar
  15. 25.
    J. Muldoon, ‘Missionaries and the Marriages of Infidels: The Case of the Mongol Mission’, The Jurist, 35 (1975), 125–41 at 129.Google Scholar
  16. 26.
    The Crusades: Idea and Reality, 1095–1274, ed. L. and J. Riley-Smith (London, 1981), p. 80.Google Scholar
  17. 28.
    R. I. Moore, The Formation of a Persecuting Society: Power and Deviance in Western Europe, 950–1250 (Oxford, 1987).Google Scholar
  18. 30.
    J. Muldoon, Popes, Lawyers, and Infidels: The Church and the Non-Christian World 1250–1550 (Philadelphia, 1979), pp. 5–15.Google Scholar
  19. 31.
    F. H. Russell, ‘Paulus Vladimiri’s Attack on the Just War: A Case Study in Legal Polemics’, in Authority and Power: Studies on Medieval Law and Government, ed. B. Tierney and P. Linehan (Cambridge, 1980), pp. 237–54.Google Scholar
  20. 32.
    N. Housley, Religious Warfare in Europe, 1400–1536 (Oxford, 2002), p. 12.Google Scholar
  21. 33.
    Ibid., p. 58.Google Scholar
  22. 34.
    F. Gardiner Davenport, European Treaties bearing on the History of the United States and its Dependencies to 1648 (Washington, DC, 1917), p. 61.Google Scholar
  23. 35.
    F. Fernández-Armesto, Columbus (Oxford, 1991), p. 109.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • James Muldoon

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations