Paradoxes of Material Culture: The Political Economy of Surfing
This chapter analyses the material bases of surfing culture (including surfboards, wetsuits, clothing, accessories, magazines, books, memorabilia, videos, competitions, tourism and surfing schools),1 which is worth an estimated US$4 billion each year (Gliddon, 2002: 20). In particular, it investigates the paradoxes of a culture that celebrates social freedom, escape from drudgery and a harmonious interaction with the natural world, and which simultaneously propagates capitalist accumulation, competition and exploitation in its modes of economic and political organization.2 Most surfers are only too well aware of the paradox; but how do they reconcile the contradictions?
KeywordsWorld Wide Material Culture World Title Capitalist Mode Board Manufacturer
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Australia’s Surfing Life (1992), ‘Australia’s fifty most influential surfers’, November, pp.70–123.Google Scholar
- Baker, T. (1986), ‘The other side: a look at the not so glamorous world of pro surfing’, Tracks, July, pp.25–7, 51.Google Scholar
- Baker, T. (2002), ‘The women’s rev-illusion’, Australia’s Surfing Life, April, pp.92–102.Google Scholar
- Barilotti, S. (2003), ‘Surfin’ USA redux’, Surfer, February, pp. 102–7.Google Scholar
- Bartholomew, W. with T. Baker (1996), Bustin’ down the door, Sydney: HarperSports.Google Scholar
- Bold, K. (1999), ‘A big wave in bedding design’, Los Angeles Times, 5 August.Google Scholar
- Booth, D. (2001a), Australian beach cultures: the history of sun, sand and surf London: Frank Cass.Google Scholar
- Booth, D. (2001b), ‘From bikinis to boardshorts: wahines and the paradoxes of surfing culture’, Journal of Sport History, 28 (1), 3–22.Google Scholar
- Carse, G. (2003), ‘Personal interview’, 26 September.Google Scholar
- Checkwood, A. and J. Stouffer (1999), ‘Chairman of the boards: Bob McKnight believes in surfing’, TransWorld Surf Business Magazine, 1 (2); retrieved 5 November 1999 from World Wide Web: http://www.transworldsurf.com.
- Dahlberg, R. (2002), ‘Industry opinions’, Australia’s Surfing Life, June, p. 104.Google Scholar
- Dorling, P. (1999), ‘Personal correspondence with Peter Dorling, Strategic Planner, Surf Coast Shire’, 16 December.Google Scholar
- Ernest, L. (1999a), ‘Many catching surf wear’s wave’, Los Angeles Times, 19 October.Google Scholar
- Ernest, L. (1999b), ‘Quiksilver’s truly endless summer’, Los Angeles Times, 29 October.Google Scholar
- Gillogly, B. (1982), ‘Surfing Sunset and Vine’, Surfer, September, pp.56–9.Google Scholar
- Gliddon, J. (2002), ‘Mad wax’, Bulletin (Australia), 13 August, pp.20–4.Google Scholar
- Groundswell (The Surf Coast Shire Community Newsletter) (1999), ‘Tribunal allows McDonald’s in Torquay’, November.Google Scholar
- Haas, M. and P. Resurrection (1976), Politics and prejudice in contemporary Hawaii, Honolulu: Coventry Press.Google Scholar
- Harvey, D. (1990), The condition of postmodernity, Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
- Hemmings, F. (1969), ‘Professionalism is white’, Surfer, November, pp.64–5.Google Scholar
- Jarratt, P. (1975), ‘A conversation with Mickey Dora’, Tracks, October, p. 13.Google Scholar
- Jarratt, P. (1977a), ‘Ego’s not a dirty word’, Tracks, April, p. 13.Google Scholar
- Jarratt, P. (1977b), ‘A profile of Graham Cassidy’, Tracks, December, pp.16–17.Google Scholar
- Jarratt, P. (1997), Mr Sunset: the Jeff Hakman story, London: Gen X.Google Scholar
- Jarratt, P. (1998a), ‘The sultan of speed’, The Australian Surfer’s Journal, Autumn, pp.28–45.Google Scholar
- Jarratt, P. (1998b), ‘Boys town: Torquay’, The Australian Surfer’s Journal, Autumn, pp.62–77.Google Scholar
- Jones, R. (1999), ‘Girls surf market overview’, TransWorld Surf Business Magazine, 1 (2); retrieved 5 November from World Wide Web: http://www.transworldsurf.com.
- Kampion, D. (1997), Stoked: a history of surf culture, Los Angeles: General Publishing Group.Google Scholar
- Kampion, D. (2001), ‘History of Jack O’Neill’, retrieved 15 January from the World Wide Web: http://www.oneill.com.
- Latronic, M. (1992), ‘Kelly Slater: lovin’ it’, The Surfer’s Journal, 1 (2), 90–5.Google Scholar
- Levine, B. (2003), ‘The next wave in literature’, Los Angeles Times, 5 April.Google Scholar
- Lueras, L. (1984), Surfing: the ultimate pleasure, New York: Workman.Google Scholar
- Mambo (1999), retrieved 8 August from World Wide Web: http://www.mambo.com.
- Manly Daily (1964a), ‘World surfboard titles at Manly’, 16 April, 16–17 May.Google Scholar
- Manly Daily (1964b), ‘Manly’s record sporting crowd sees Farrelly’s board win’, 19 May.Google Scholar
- Marcus, B. (1999), ‘Hurley burly: Bob Hurley looks backward and forward’, Trans World Surf Business Magazine, 1 (2), retrieved 18 August from World Wide Web: http://www.transworldsurf.com.
- Marx, K. (1976), Capital, vol. 1, Harmondsworth: Penguin.Google Scholar
- McClelland, G. (1995), ‘Scenes from the life and times of Bud Browne’, The Surfer’s Journal, Fall, 30–51.Google Scholar
- Noll, J. and A. Gabbard (1989), Da bull: life over the edge, Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books.Google Scholar
- O’Brien, S. (1999), ‘Quiksilver brings its wetsuit program in-house’, Trans World Surf Business Magazine (Business news archive), retrieved 10 October from World Wide Web: http://www.transworldsurf.com.
- Renneker, M., K. Starr and G. Booth (1993), Sick surfers ask the surf docs and Dr. Geoff, Palo Alto: Bull.Google Scholar
- Rip Curl (1999), ‘1999 Heli-Challenge’, retrieved 10 August 1999 from World Wide Web: http://www.heli-challenge.co.nz/ripcurl.htm.
- Severson, J. (1985), ‘In the beginning’, Surfer, January, pp.110–13.Google Scholar
- Smith, S. (1999), ‘Oakley raids counterfeiter’, Trans World Surf Business Magazine (Business news archive), retrieved 20 November from World Wide Web: http://www.transworldsurf.com.
- Stranger, M. (2001), ‘Risk-taking and postmodernity: commodification and the ecstatic in leisure lifestyles: the case of surfing’, unpublished PhD thesis, University of Tasmania.Google Scholar
- Surf Coast Shire (no date), ‘A business profile’, brochure, Surf Coast Shire.Google Scholar
- Surfer (1968), ‘Hemmings is hot’, November, pp.64–9.Google Scholar
- Taylor, G. (1999), ‘Dream job: how to get paid to surf the world’s best waves without grovelling in contests’, Trans World Surf, 1 (3), retrieved 15 July from World Wide Web: http://www.transworldsurf.com.
- The Age (Melbourne) (1999), ‘Big Mac hit by a wave of anger’, 13 August.Google Scholar
- Tracks (1991), ‘Surfers on pro surfing’, October, pp.90–1.Google Scholar
- Tracks (1999), ‘Letter’, December, p.20.Google Scholar
- TransWorld Surf (1999), ‘Forum: Derek Hynd’s new tour’, retrieved 20 August from World Wide Web: http://www.transworldsurf.com.Google Scholar
- TransWorld Surf Business Magazine (1999), ‘Chairman of the boards: quick facts’, 1 (2), retrieved 18 August from World Wide Web: http://www.transworldsurf.com.Google Scholar
- Wardlaw, L. (1991), Cowabunga, New York: Avon Books.Google Scholar
- Williams, R. (1995), The sociology of culture, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar