Playing an Aerial Game: The New Political Economy of Soccer

  • Richard Giulianotti
Part of the International Political Economy Series book series (IPES)

Abstract

Association football, otherwise known as soccer, is without question the world’s most popular sport. Globally soccer is played and watched by more people than any other game. While the American professional basketball (NBA) and football/gridiron (NFL) leagues struggle to cultivate a massive European following, soccer has been successfully transplanted into the apparently infertile territory of the United States, resulting in 18 million direct participants (Andrews, 1999). Soccer’s flagship tournament, the World Cup finals, is fast approaching the Olympic Games as sport’s most extravagant mega-event. Soccer constitutes a lingua franca qua body culture to peoples otherwise divided by language, religion or custom. Politically the game has been considered to spark wars in Central America and revolutions in Eastern Europe (Kapuscinski, 1992),1 as well as promote ceasefires and conflict resolutions in Africa (Murray, 1996; Richards, 1997). Yet soccer’s global centrality is most commonly measured in financial terms. Some estimates valued annual soccer-related business at over £250 billion in the year 2001.

Keywords

Migration Europe Income Marketing Turkey 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alabarces, P. (1999), ‘Post-modern times: identities and violence in Argentine football’, in G. Armstrong and R. Giulianotti (eds), Football, cultures and identities, Basingstoke: Macmillan, pp. 77–85.Google Scholar
  2. Andrews, D. (1999), ‘Contextualising suburban soccer: consumer culture, lifestyle differentiation and suburban America’, Culture, Sport, Society, 2 (3), 31–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Armstrong, G. (1998), Football hooligans: knowing the score, Oxford: Berg.Google Scholar
  4. Armstrong, G. and R. Giulianotti (1998), ‘From Another Angle: surveillance and football hooligans’, in C. Norris, G. Armstrong and J. Moran (eds), Surveillance, CCTV and Social Control, Aldershot: Avebury/Gower, pp. 191–223.Google Scholar
  5. Back, L., T. Crabbe and J. Solomos (1996), ‘Campaign trail’, When Saturday Comes, December.Google Scholar
  6. Bourdieu, P. (1999), ‘The state, economics and sport’, Culture, Sport, Society, 1 (2), 10–19.Google Scholar
  7. Broere, M. and R. van der Drift (1997), Football Africa!, Amsterdam: KIT.Google Scholar
  8. Brown, A. (ed.) (1998), Fanatics! power, race, nationality and fandom in European football, London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  9. Castells, M. (1996), The rise of the network society, Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  10. Chomsky, N. (1995), ‘The politics of language’, in R. Kearney (ed.), States of mind: dialogues with contemporary thinkers on the European mind, Manchester: Manchester University Press, pp.31–48.Google Scholar
  11. Conn, D. (1997), The football business, Edinburgh: Mainstream.Google Scholar
  12. Del Burgo, M.B. (1995), ‘Don’t stop the carnival: football in the societies of Latin America’, in S. Wagg (ed.), Giving the game away, Leicester: Leicester University Press, pp.52–71.Google Scholar
  13. Dempsey, P. and K. Reilly (1998), Big money, beautiful game: saving soccer from itself, Edinburgh: Mainstream.Google Scholar
  14. Dunning, E., P. Murphy and J. Williams (1988), The roots of football hooliganism, London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  15. Fynn, A. and L. Guest (1994), Out of time: why football isn’t working, London: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  16. Giulianotti, R. (1999a), Football: a sociology of the global game, Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  17. Giulianotti, R. (1999b), ‘Hooligans and Carnival fans: Scottish football supporter identities’, in G. Armstrong and R. Giulianotti (eds), Football, cultures and identities, Basingstoke: Macmillan, pp.29–40.Google Scholar
  18. Giulianotti, R. (1999c), ‘Built by the two Valeras: the rise and fall of football culture and national identity in Uruguay’, Culture, Sport, Society, 2 (3), 134–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Giulianotti, R. (2001), ‘Conducting play’, Youth and Policy, 73, 45–65.Google Scholar
  20. Greenfield, S. and G. Osborn (1998), ‘From feudal serf to big spender: the influence of legal intervention on the status of English professional footballers’, Culture, Sport, Society, 1 (1), 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hopcraft, A. (1988), The football man, London: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  22. Horton, E. (1997), Moving the goalposts, Edinburgh: Mainstream.Google Scholar
  23. Kapuscinski, R. (1992), The soccer war, New York: Vintage International.Google Scholar
  24. Lash, S. (1994), ‘Expert-systems or situated interpretation?’, in U. Beck, A. Giddens and S. Lash (eds), Reflexive modernization, Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  25. Lash, S. and J. Urry (1987), The end of organized capitalism, Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  26. Lash, S. and J. Urry (1994), Economies of signs and space, London: Sage.Google Scholar
  27. Magazine, R. (2001), ‘The colours make me sick: America FC and political corruption in Mexico’, in G. Armstrong and R. Giulianotti (eds), Fear and loathing in world football, Oxford: Berg, pp.187–98.Google Scholar
  28. Mason, T. (1994), ‘The Bogotà Affair’, in J. Bale and J. Maguire (eds), The global sports arena, London: Frank Cass, pp.39–48.Google Scholar
  29. Morgan, W.J. (1994), Leftist theories of sport: a critique and reconstruction, Urbana: University of Illinois.Google Scholar
  30. Murray, B. (1996), The world’s game: a history of soccer, Urbana: University of Illinois.Google Scholar
  31. Raspaud, M. (1994), ‘From Saint-Etienne to Marseilles: tradition and modernity in French soccer and society’, in R. Giulianotti and J. Williams (eds), Game without frontiers: football, identity and modernity, Aldershot: Avebury, pp. 103–27.Google Scholar
  32. Richards, P. (1997), ‘Soccer and Violence in War-Torn Africa: soccer and social rehabilitation in Sierra Leone’, in G. Armstrong and R. Giulianotti (eds), Entering the field: new perspectives on world football, Oxford: Berg, pp. 141–58.Google Scholar
  33. Semino, E. and M. Masci (1996), ‘Politics is football: metaphor in the discourse of Silvio Berlusconi in Italy’, Discourse and Society, 7 (2), 243–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sloane, P.J. (1997), ‘The economics of sport: an overview’, Economic Affairs, 17 (3), 2–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Szymanski, S. and R. Smith (1997), ‘The English football industry: profit, performance and industrial structure’, International Review of Applied Economics, 11 (1), 135–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Taylor, I. (1970), ‘Football mad: a speculative sociology of soccer hooliganism’, in E. Dunning (ed.), The sociology of sport, London: Frank Cass, pp.346–73.Google Scholar
  37. Taylor, I. (1971), ‘Soccer consciousness and soccer hooliganism’, in S. Cohen (ed.), Images of deviance, Harmondsworth: Penguin, pp. 147–66.Google Scholar
  38. Taylor, I. (1982a), ‘On the sports-violence question: soccer hooliganism revisited’, in J. Hargreaves (ed.), Sport, culture and ideology, London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, pp. 173–99.Google Scholar
  39. Taylor, I. (1982b), ‘Class, violence and sport: the case of soccer hooliganism’, in H. Cantelon and R. Gruneau (eds), Sport, culture and the modern state, Toronto: Toronto University, pp.35–83.Google Scholar
  40. Taylor, I. (1987), ‘Putting the boot into a working class sport: British soccer after Bradford and Brussels’, Sociology of Sport Journal, 4, 171–91.Google Scholar
  41. Taylor, I. (1989), Hillsborough: 15 April 1989. Some personal contemplations’, New Left Review, 177, 89–110.Google Scholar
  42. Vinnai, G. (1973), Football mania, London: Ocean.Google Scholar
  43. Walsh, A.J. (1998), ‘Market pathology and the range of commodity exchange: a preliminary sketch’, Public Affairs Quarterly, 12 (2), 203–19.Google Scholar
  44. Walvin, J. (1975), The people’s game, London: Hutchinson.Google Scholar
  45. Walzer, M. (1983), Spheres of justice, Oxford: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Richard Giulianotti 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Richard Giulianotti

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations