Factory Women under Globalization: Incorporating Japanese Women into the Global Factory Debate

  • Mayumi Murayama
Part of the IDE-JETRO Series book series (IDE)

Abstract

Women working in factories have been a topic of heated debate since the time of the first Industrial Revolution in Britain (Engels, 1845). In the countries that followed Britain, such as France and the USA, women again played a crucial role as industrial labourers, contributing to the successful transformation of the national economy as well as to their households’ livelihoods (Tilly and Scott, 1978; Dublin, 1979; Moran, 2002). Japan was no exception. Since the establishment of the first modern silk reeling mill in 1872 and during the subsequent era of the industrial revolution, female workers constituted the majority of the industrial workforce (Hosoi, 1954; Yamamoto, 1977; Nakamura, 1985; Tsurumi, 1990; Miyake, 1991; Molony, 1991). See Murayama (2003) for a detailed bibliography.

Keywords

Depression Europe Income Marketing Turkey 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adachi, Mariko (1994). ‘Keizai no gurobaruka to rodoryoku no joseika’ (Economic globalization and feminization of labour) in Emiko Takenaka and Yoshiko Kuba (eds), Rodoryoku no joseika: 21 seiki e no paradaimu (Feminization of labour: a paradigm for the 21st century) (Tokyo: Yuhikaku) (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  2. Addison, Tony and Lionel Demery (1988) ‘Wages and Labour Conditions in East Asia: A Review of Case-Study Evidence’, Development Policy Review, vol. 6, pp. 371–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Banerjee, Nirmala (ed.) (1991) Indian Women in a Changing Industrial Scenario (New Delhi: Sage Publications).Google Scholar
  4. Bonacich, Edna and Richard P. Appelbaum (2000) Behind the Label: Inequality in the Los Angeles Apparel Industry (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press).Google Scholar
  5. Bonacich, Edna, Lucie Cheng, Norma Chinchilla, Nora Hamilton and Paul Ong (eds). (1994). Global Production: The Apparel Industry in the Pacific Rim, (Philadelphia, Pa.: Temple University Press).Google Scholar
  6. Carney, Larry S. and Charlotte G. O’Kelly (1990) ‘Women’s Work and Women’s Place in the Japanese Economic Miracle’, in Kathryn Ward (ed.), Women Workers and Global Restructuring (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press).Google Scholar
  7. Chow, Esther Ngan-Ling (ed.) (2002). Transforming Gender and Development in East Asia (New York: Routledge).Google Scholar
  8. Dublin, Thomas (1979) Women at Work: The Transformation of Work and Community in Lowell, Massachusetts, 1826–1860, 2nd edn 1993 (New York: Columbia University Press).Google Scholar
  9. Edgren, Gus (1982) Spearheads of Industrialisation or Sweatshops in the Sun? A Critical Appraisal of Labour Conditions in Asian Export Processing Zones (Bangkok: ILO-ARTEP).Google Scholar
  10. Elson, Diane and Ruth Pearson (1981) ‘The Subordination of Women and the Internationalisation of Factory Production’, in Kate Young, Carol Wolkowitz and Roslyn McCullagh (eds), Of Marriage and the Market: Women’s Subordination in International Perspective (London: CSE Books).Google Scholar
  11. Elson, Diane and Caroline Wright (1996) Gender Issues in Contemporary Industrialization: An Annotated Bibliography, Labour Studies Working Papers No. 10. Centre for Comparative Labour Studies, University of Warwick.Google Scholar
  12. Engels, Frederick (1845) The Condition of the Working-Class in England in Karl Marx and Frederick Engels Collected Works, vol. 4 (1975) (Moscow: Progress Publishers).Google Scholar
  13. Featherstone, Liza and United Students Against Sweatshops (2002) Students Against Sweatshops (New York: Verso).Google Scholar
  14. Fernandes, Leela (1997) Producing Workers: The Politics of Gender, Class and Culture in the Calcutta Jute Mills (Philadelphia, Pa.: University of Pennsylvania Press).Google Scholar
  15. Foo, Gillian H. C. and Linda Y. C. Lim (1989) ‘Poverty, Ideology and Women Export Factory Workers in South-East Asia’, In Haleh Afshar and Bina Agarwal (eds), Women, Poverty and Ideology in Asia: Contradictory Pressures, Uneasy Resolutions (London: Macmillan), pp. 212–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fuentes, Annette and Barbara Ehrenreich (1983) Women in the Global Factory (Boston, Mass.: South End Press).Google Scholar
  17. Fujii, Harue (1997a) ‘Ninon gata kigyo shakai to josei rodo’ (Japanese-style corporate society and female labour), in Mitsuo Fujii (ed.), Higashi Ajia no kokusai bungyo to josei rodo (International division of labour in East Asia and female labour) (Tokyo: Mineruba Shobo), pp. 77–121 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  18. Fujii, Harue (1997b) ‘Kokusai bungyo no shinten to rodoryoku no joseika: Chugoku nikkei kigyo no kesu o chushin ni’ (Progress in the international division of labour and feminization of labour: with a focus on Japanese companies in China), Ohotsuku sangyo keiei ronshu (Journal of Okhotsk Business Science) vol. 8. no. 2 pp. 1–29 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  19. Fujii, Harue (2001) ‘Chugoku apareru sangyo no romu kanri’ (Labour management in the apparel industry in China), in Mitsuo Fujii (ed.), Higashi ajia ni okeru kokusai bungyo to gijutsu iten (International division of labor and technology transfer in East Asia) (Tokyo: Mineruba Shobo), pp. 234–55 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  20. Goka, Kazumichi (2003) ‘Disento waku kara mita Nihon no koyo to rodo’ (Employment and labour in Japan from a ‘decent work’ perspective), Josei Rodo Kenkyu (The bulletin of the society for study of working women), vol. 43, pp. 20–30 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  21. Goonatilake, Hema and Sabitri Goonesekere (1988). ‘Industrialisation and Women Workers in Sri Lanka: Working Conditions Inside and Outside the Investment Promotion Zone’, in Noeleen Heyzer (ed.) Daughters in Industry: Work, Skills and Consciousness of Women Workers in Asia (Kuala Lumpur: Asian and Pacific Development Centre), pp. 184–208.Google Scholar
  22. Hayata, Ritsuko (1997) Kojo e no tabi: Tomioka seishijo kara Omi kenshi e (A journey to factory women: from Tomioka mill to Omi silk spinning) (Kyoto: Kamogawa Shuppan) (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  23. Heider, Karl G. (1988) ‘The Rashomon Effect: When Ethnographers Disagree’, American Anthropologist, vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 73–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Heyzer, Noeleen and Tan Boon Kean (1988) ‘Work, Skills and Consciousness of Women Workers in Asia’, in Noeleen Heyzer (ed.) Daughters in Industry: Work, Skills and Consciousness of Women Workers in Asia (Kuala Lumpur: Asian and Pacific Development Centre).Google Scholar
  25. Hiroki, Michiko (1977) ‘Gorika no naka no fujin rodosha: seni sangyo ni hataraku fujin rodosha no koyo to bosei hogo no jittai’ (Female workers under rationalization: employment and maternity protection of female textile workers), Gekkan rodo kumiai (Trade union monthly), April, pp. 34–7 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  26. Hiroki, Michiko (1978) ‘Fukyo no naka no seni joshi rodosha’ (Female textile workers under economic depression), Gekkan rodo kumiai (Trade union monthly), March, pp. 52–7 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  27. Hiroki, Michiko (1986) In the Shadow of Affluence: Stories of Japanese Women Workers (Hong Kong: Committee for Asian Women).Google Scholar
  28. Hiroki, Michiko (1999) Ajia ni ikiru josei tachi (Women in Asia: fifteen years’ experience of association with female workers) (Tokyo: Domesu Shuppan) (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  29. Hosoi, Wakizo (1954) Joko aishi (The pitiful history of female factory workers) (Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten) (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  30. Joekes, Susan (1985) ‘Working for Lipstick? Male and Female Labour in the Clothing Industry in Morocco’, in Haleh Afshar (ed.), Women, Work and Ideology in the Third World (London and New York: Tavistock), pp. 183–213.Google Scholar
  31. Kabeer, Naila (2000) The Power to Choose: Bangladeshi Women and Labour Market Decisions in London and Dhaka (London: Verso).Google Scholar
  32. Kamijo, Hiroyuki (1978) Kinu hitosuji no seishun: Tomioka nikki ni miru nihon no kindai (My youth for silk: modern Japan seen in Tomioka diary) (Tokyo: Nihon Hoso Shuppan Kyoukai) (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  33. Kim, Seung-Kyung (1997) Class Struggle or Family Struggle? The Lives of Women Factory Workers in South Korea (Cambridge University Press).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Kung, Lydia (1978) Factory Women in Taiwan (Ann Arbor, Mich.: UMI Research Press) (New edition published 1994 by Columbia University Press).Google Scholar
  35. Lee, Ching Kwang (1998) Gender and the South China Miracle: Two Worlds of Factory Women (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press).Google Scholar
  36. Lim, Linda Y. C. (1983) ‘Capitalism, Imperialism, and Patriarchy: The Dilemma of Third-World Women Workers in Multinational Factories’, in June Nash and Maria Patricia Fernandez-Kelly (eds), Women, Men, and the International Division of Labor (Albany, NY: State University of New York Press), pp. 70–91.Google Scholar
  37. Louie, Miriam Ching Yoon (2001) Sweatshop Warriors: Immigrant Women Workers Take on the Global Factory (Cambridge, Mass: South End Press).Google Scholar
  38. Mather, Celia (1985) ‘“Rather Than Make Trouble, it’s Better Just to Leave”: Behind the Lack of Industrial Strife in the Tangerang Region of West Java’, in Haleh Afshar (ed.) Women, Work and Ideology in the Third World (London and New York: Tavistock).Google Scholar
  39. Mies, Maria (1986) Patriarchy and Accumulation on a World Scale: Women in the International Division of Labour (London: Zed Books).Google Scholar
  40. Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) (2001) White Paper on International Trade (Tokyo: METI).Google Scholar
  41. Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) (2003a) White Paper on International Trade (Tokyo: METI).Google Scholar
  42. Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) (2003b) Nihon no seni sangyo ga susumubeki hoko to torubeki seisaku (Directions and policies Japan’s textile industry should take) Sub-Committee on Textile Industry, Advisory Committee on Industrial Structure (Tokyo: METI) (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  43. Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI) (various dates) Kogyo tokei hyo (Census of manufacturing) (Tokyo: METI) (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  44. Miyake, Yoshiko (1991) ‘Doubling Expectations: Motherhood and Women’s Factory Work under State Management in Japan in the 1930s and 1940s’, in Bernstein, Gail Lee, (ed.), Recreating Japanese Women, 1600–1945 (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press).Google Scholar
  45. Miyake, Yoshiko (2001) ‘Nihon no shakai kagagu to jenda’ (Social sciences in Japan and gender: an analysis of the discourse on Joko aishi [The pitiful history of female factory workers]), in Yoshiko Miyake (ed.), Nihon shakai to jenda (Japanese society and gender) (Tokyo: Akashi Shoten) (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  46. Molony, Barbara (1991) ‘Activism among Women in the Taisho Cotton Textile Industry’, in Gail Lee Bernstein (ed.), Recreating Japanese Women, 1600–1945 (Berkeley Calif.: University of California Press).Google Scholar
  47. Moran, William (2002) The Belles of New England: The Women of the Textile Mills and Families Whose Wealth They Wove (New York: St. Martin’s Press).Google Scholar
  48. Murakami, Kaoru (1999) ‘Toruko no kojo josei rodo to jenda kihan’ (Factory daughters and gender norms in Turkey), Ajia keizai (Asian economies), vol. 40, no. 5, pp. 24–48 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  49. Murayama, Mayumi (2003) ‘Nihon ni okeru josei kojo rodosha kenkyu’ (Studies on female factory workers in Japan: with a focus on the textile industry), in Mayumi Murayama (ed.), Nihon ni okeru kaihatsu to jenda: Tojokoku kenkyu no tame no bunken kaidai (An annotated bibliography on development and gender in Japan) (Chiba: Institute of Developing Economies), pp. 103–41 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  50. Nakamura, Masanori (ed.) (1985) Gijutsu kakushin to joshi rodo (Technological innovation and female labour) (Tokyo: United Nations University and University of Tokyo Press) (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  51. Nakamura, Masanori and Corrado Molteni (1985) ‘Seishi gijutsu no hatten to joshi rodo’ (Development of silk-reeling technology and factory labour) in Masanori Nakamura (ed.) Gijutsu kakushin to joshi rodo (Technological innovation and female labour) (Tokyo: United Nations University and University of Tokyo Press), pp. 33–70 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  52. Nishinarita, Yutaka (1985) ‘Joshi rodo no shoruikei to sono henyo’ (Types of female labour and their evolution: 1890s to 1940s), in Masanori Nakamura (ed.), Gijutsu kakushin to joshi rodo (Technological innovation and female labour) Tokyo: United Nations University and University of Tokyo Press), pp. 7–31 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  53. North-South Institute, The (1985) Women in Industry: North-South Connections (Ottawa: The North-South Institute).Google Scholar
  54. Omi, Naoto (2001) ‘Kozui teki yunyu kara seni sangyo o mamorou’ (Let’s protect the textile industry from the flood of imports) Zensen kompasu, vol. 51, no. 5. pp. 2–11 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  55. Ong, Aihwa (1987) Spirits of Resistance and Capitalist Discipline: Factory Women in Malaysia (Albany, NY: SUNY Press).Google Scholar
  56. Phongpaichit, Pasuk (1988) ‘Two Roads to the Factory: Industrialisation Strategies and Women’s Employment in Southeast Asia’, in Bina Agarwal (eds), Structure of Patriarchy: State, Community and Household in Modernising Asia (London and New Delhi: Zed Books and Kali for Women), pp. 151–63.Google Scholar
  57. Rao, Vijay Rukmini and Sahba Husain (1991) ‘Invisible Hands — The Women Behind India’s Export Earnings’, in Nirmala Banerjee (ed.), Indian Women in a Changing Industrial Scenario (New Delhi, Newbury Park London: Sage Publications), pp. 133–200.Google Scholar
  58. Roberts, Glenda S. (1994) Staying on the Line: Blue-Collar Women in Contemporary Japan (Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press).Google Scholar
  59. Rosen, Ellen Israel (2002) Making Sweatshops: The Globalization of the U.S. Apparel Industry, (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press).Google Scholar
  60. Ross, Andrew (ed.) (1997) No Sweat: Fashion, Free Trade, and the Rights of Garment Workers (New York: Verso).Google Scholar
  61. Rothstein, Frances Abrahamer and Michael L. Blim (eds) (1992) Anthropology and the Global Factory: Studies of the New Industrialization in the Late Twentieth Century (New York: Bergin and Garvey).Google Scholar
  62. Safa, Helen I. (1995) The Myth of the Male Breadwinner: Women and Industralization in the Caribbean, (Boulder, Col.: Westview Press).Google Scholar
  63. Salaff, Janet W. (1981) Working Daughters of Hong Kong: Filial Piety or Power in the Family? (Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  64. Sassen, Saskia (1998) Globalization and its Discontents (New York: The New Press).Google Scholar
  65. Shiozawa, Miyoko (1971) Kekkon taishoku-go no watashitachi: Seishi rodosha no sonogo (How we are after retirement on marriage: the lives of former silk workers) (Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten) (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  66. Shiozawa, Miyoko (1983) Meido in tonan ajia: gendai no joko aishi (Made in South East Asia: pitiful contemporary history of female factory workers) (Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten) (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  67. Steans, Jill (1998) Gender and International Relations (New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press).Google Scholar
  68. Suzuki, Yuko (1989) Joko to rodo sogi (Factory women and labour disputes) (Tokyo: Renga shobo shinsha) (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  69. Takai, Toshio (1980) Watashi no joko aishi (My pitiful factory work history) (Tokyo: Sodo Bunka) (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  70. Tilly, Luise A. and Joan W. Scott (1978) Women, Work, and Family (New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston).Google Scholar
  71. Tsurumi, E. Patricia (1990) Factory Girls: Women in the Thread Mills of Meiji Japan (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press).Google Scholar
  72. Wada, Ei (1978) Tomioka nikki (Tomioka diary) (Tokyo: Chuko Bunko) (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  73. Ward, Kathryn (1990) ‘Introduction and Overview’, in Kathryn Ward (ed.), Women Workers and Global Restructuring (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press).Google Scholar
  74. Wolf, Diane L. (1992) Factory Daughters: Gender, Household Dynamics, and Rural Industrialization in Java (Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press).Google Scholar
  75. Yamamoto, Shigemi (1977) Aa Nomugi toge (Ah! The Nomugi Pass) (Tokyo: Kadokawa) (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  76. Yamanouchi, Mina (1975) Yamauchi Mina jiden: 12 sai no boseki joko kara no shogai (The autobiography of Mina Yamauchi: my life from the time I was a twelve-year-old cotton-spinning factory girl) (Tokyo: Shinjuku Shobo) (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  77. Yamawaki, Hideki (1992) ‘International Competition and Japan’s Domestic Adjustments’, in Kim Anderson (ed.), New Silk Roads: East Asia and World Textile Markets (Cambridge University Press), pp. 89–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Yamazawa, Ippei (1988) ‘The Textile Industry’, in Ryutaro Komiya Masahiro Okuno and Kotaro Suzumura (eds), Industrial Policy of Japan (Tokyo: Academic Press Japan), pp. 395–423.Google Scholar
  79. Yokota, Takaaki (2001) ‘Ninon no seni sangyo to meido in Chaina’ (The Japanese textile industry and ‘Made in China’), Nicchu keikyou janaru (Journal of Japan-China Economic Co-operation) June, pp. 6–15 (in Japanese).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Institute of Developing Economies (IDE),JETRO 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mayumi Murayama

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations