Bangalore’s Software Cluster

  • Aya Okada
Part of the IDE-JETRO Series book series (IDE)


Why do some industrial clusters remain robust while others do not? What helps build the competitiveness of such clusters, enabling them to thrive? This chapter empirically examines the conditions under which knowledge-based industrial clusters in developing countries build competitiveness, with particular focus on the dynamics of the local labour market, as an institutional mechanism for promoting innovation and strengthening industrial competitiveness.


Skilled Labour Local Labour Market Software Industry Industrial Cluster Regional Innovation System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Amsden, Alice H. 1989. Asia’s Next Giant: South Korea and Late Industrialization. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Amsden, Alice H. and Takashi Hikino. 1994. ‘Project Execution Capability, Organizational Know-how and Conglomerate Corporate Growth in Late Industrialization’, Industrial and Corporate Change, 3 (1), 111–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ashton, David, Francis Green, Donna James, and Johnny Sung. 1999. Education and Training for Development in East Asia: The Political Economy of Skill Formation in East Asian Newly Industrializing Economies. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  4. Breschi, Stefano and Franco Malerba. 2001. ‘The Geography of Innovation and Economic Clustering: Some Introductory Notes’, Industrial and Corporate Change, 10 (4), 817–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Breschi, Stefano and Francesco Lissoni. 2001. ‘Knowledge Spillovers and Local Innovation Systems: A Critical Survey’, Industrial and Corporate Change, 10 (4), 975–1005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bresnahan, Timothy, Alfonso Gambardella and AnnaLee Saxenian. 2001. ‘“Old Economy” Inputs for “New Economy” Outcomes: Cluster Formation in the New Silicon Valleys’, Industrial and Corporate Change, 10 (4), 835–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cooke, Philip. 2001. ‘Regional Innovation Systems, Clusters, and the Knowledge Economy’, Industrial and Corporate Change, 10 (4), 945–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dolan, Catherine S. and Meenu Tewari. 2001. ‘From What We Wear to What We Eat: Upgrading in Global Value Chains’, IDS Bulletin, 32 (3), 94–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Government of India. 2001. IT Manpower, Challenge and Response: Interim Report of the Task Force on HRD in IT. Delhi: Department of Secondary and Higher Education, Ministry of Human Resource Development.Google Scholar
  10. Granovetter, Mark. 1985. ‘Economic Action and Social Structure: The Problem of Embeddedness’, American Journal of Sociology, 91 (3), 481–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Heeks, Richard. 1996. India’s Software Industry: State Policy, Liberalization, and Industrial Development. Delhi: Sage.Google Scholar
  12. Humphrey, John, Avinandan Mukherjee, Mauro Zilbovicius, and Glauco Arbix. 1998. ‘Globalization, FDI and the Restructuring of Supplier Networks: The Motor Industry in Brazil and India’, in Mitsuhiko Kagami, John Humphrey and Michael Piore (eds), Learning, Liberalization and Economic Adjustment. Tokyo: Institute of Developing Economies.Google Scholar
  13. ILO. 2001. World Employment Report 2001: Life at Work in the Information Economy. Geneva: International Labour Office.Google Scholar
  14. Kaplinksy, Raphael. 1997. ‘India’s Industrial Development: An Interpretative Study’, World Development, 25 (5), 681–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Krugman, Paul. 1995. Development, Geography and Economic Theory. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  16. Nadvi, Khalid and Hubert Schmitz. 1994. Industrial Clusters in Less Developed Countries: Review of Experience and Research Agenda, IDS Discussion Paper no. 339. Brighton: Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex.Google Scholar
  17. NASSCOM. 2001. The IT Software and Services in India: 2001. Delhi: NASSCOM.Google Scholar
  18. NASSCOM. 2002. NASSCOM-McKinsey Report 2002: Strategies to Achieve the Indian IT Industry’s Aspiration. Delhi: NASSCOM.Google Scholar
  19. National Institute of Technology Karnataka (NITK). 2002. Annual Technical Manpower Review 1999–2003 for Karnataka State Surathkal: NITK.Google Scholar
  20. Okada, Aya. 2000. Workers’ Learning through Inter-firtn Linkages in the Process of Globalization: Lessons from the Indian Automobile Industry. PhD dissertation, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.Google Scholar
  21. Okada, Aya. 2004. ‘Skills Development and Interfirm Learning Linkages under Globalization: Lessons from the Indian Automobile Industry’, World Development, 32(7), 1265–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Parthasarathy, Balaji. 2000. Globalization and Agglomeration in Newly Industrializing Countries: The State and the Information Technology Industry in Bangalore, India. PhD dissertation, Berkeley, CA: University of California.Google Scholar
  23. Piore, Michael J. and Charles F. Sabel. 1984. The Second Industrial Divide. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  24. Porter, Michael. 1990. The Competitive Advantage of Nations. New York: Free Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Pyke, Frank, Giacomo Becattini and Werner Sengenberger, (eds). 1990. Industrial Districts and Inter-firm Cooperation in Italy. Geneva: International Institute for Labour Studies/ILO.Google Scholar
  26. Saxenian, Annalee. 1994. Regional Advantage: Culture and Competition in Silicon Valley and Route128. Boston, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Saxenian, AnnaLee. 2001. Bangalore: The Silicon Valley of Asia? Centre for Research on Economic Development and Policy Reform Working Paper no. 91. Stanford, CA: Stanford University.Google Scholar
  28. Saxenian, AnnaLee and Jinn-Yuh Hsu. 2001. ‘The Silicon Valley-Hsinchu Connection: Technical Communities and Industrial Upgrading’, Industrial and Corporate Change, 10 (4), 893–920.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Schmitz, Hubert and Bernard Musyck. 1993. Industrial Districts in Europe: Policy Lessons for Developing Countries? IDS Discussion Paper no. 324. Brighton: Institute of Development Studies, University of Sussex.Google Scholar
  30. Schmitz, Hubert, and Khalid Nadvi. 1999. ‘Clustering and Industrialization: Introduction’, World Development, 27 (9), 1503–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sharma, Ravi. 2001. ‘In a High-Growth Trajectory’, Frontline, December 21, 2001, 65–72.Google Scholar
  32. Tschang, Ted. 2001. The Basic Characteristics of Skills and Organizational Capabilities in the Indian Software Industry. ADB Institute Working Paper no. 13. Tokyo: ADB Institute.Google Scholar
  33. Rothboeck, S., M. Vijayabask, and V. Gayathri. 2001. Labour in the New Economy: The Case of the Indian Software Labour Market. New Delhi: International Labour Organization.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Institute of Developing Economies (IDE),JETRO 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aya Okada

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations