Voluntary State-Subsidized Social Insurance in the Advanced Industrialized World since the 1890s: The Nordic Experience in Comparative Perspective

  • Eero Carroll
Part of the Social Policy in a Development Context book series (SPDC)


The historic tension between voluntarism and statism remains politicized in today’s welfare debates. Voluntarism without state intervention, in accordance with Alexis de Tocqueville’s idea of ‘the slow and quiet action of society upon itself,’1 has become compromised. States increasingly engage with social movements, and vice versa, financially, regulatorily and interorganizationally. This sharpens the question of what organizations and citizens gain or lose by this inter-articulation of ‘sectors’ in what is (utterly ahistorically) called the ‘new mixed economy of welfare’.


Social Capital Unemployment Insurance Voluntary Organization Sickness Fund Sickness Insurance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© United Nations Research Institute for Social Development 2005

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  • Eero Carroll

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