Listening has become an important component of many language programmes but many teachers are still uncertain about how they help their students develop their listening abilities. One way in which teachers can begin to plan activities for developing listening competence is to consider the characteristics of second language (L2) listening expertise. It should be noted that the term ‘listening expertise’ is seldom if ever used in the L2 listening literature. Research and discussions on L2 listening has focused on characteristics of ‘competent’, ‘skilled’, ‘advanced’, ‘good’, ‘active’, ‘strategic’, ‘high-ability’, ‘proficient’, ‘effective’ or ‘successful’ listeners. As a working definition, therefore, we will consider expert L2 listeners as learners who show good comprehension abilities and who possess specific cognitive attributes that enhance their comprehension processes and overall listening development.


Language Learn Metacognitive Knowledge Metacognitive Strategy Apply Linguistics Metacognitive Awareness 
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