It is widely acknowledged that over the last 30 years or so we have experienced a dramatic increase in the globalisation of economic activity. International trade, cross-border investment, portfolio capital flows and migration have all increased. As a consequence economies have become more open and more interdependent. Because economies have become more ‘joined-up’, national welfare has become more sensitive to events and developments beyond national frontiers, which is one of the reasons why globalisation has become a controversial issue. There is widespread acknowledgement that, in most circumstances, the longer-run net benefits of globalisation is positive; most discourse centres on the intra-national and international distribution of gains.
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