Advertisement

Child Labour and Children’s Rights: Policy Issues in Three Affluent Societies

  • Wiebina Heesterman

Abstract

The previous two decades saw important changes in attitudes and approaches towards children and young people. Whereas in the past children tended to be treated as little more than appendages of their parents, the adoption of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) constructs young people as subjects of rights rather than mere objects to be protected. There are indications that the UNCRC is beginning to have an impact, in particular where a culture of rights is already in existence (Woll, 2000).

Keywords

Young People Minimum Wage Child Labour Industrial Relation International Labour Organisation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aldridge, J. and S. Becker (1993) ‘Children who care.’ ChildRight (97), pp. 13–14.Google Scholar
  2. Alston, P. (1989). ‘Implementing Children’s Rights: The Case of Child Labour.’ Nordic Journal of International Law vol. 58(1): 35–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beckhoven, A. P. M. v. (1991) Evaluatie richtlijnen voor het optreden van kinderen. Den Haag, Ministerie van Sociale Zaken en Werkgelegenheid, Directoraat-Generaal van de Arbeid door Regioplan Onderzoek en Adviesbureau voor Regionale Economie en Locale Ontwikkelingen.Google Scholar
  4. Birmingham City Council Education Department (1994, 1995) Child Employment and Children in Entertainment: Annual Report. Birmingham, Court & Child Employment Section.Google Scholar
  5. Boskey, J. B. (1990) ‘Preventing Exploitation of the Child’. Children’s Rights in America: UN Convention on the Rights of the Child Compared with United States Law. C. Price Cohen and H. A. Davidson, American Bar Association Center on Children and the Law and Defense for Children International-USA.: 303–314.Google Scholar
  6. Boyden, J. (1997) ‘Childhood and the Policy Makers: a Comparative Perspective on the Globalization of Childhood’, in: Constructing and Reconstructing Childhood. A. James and A. Prout. London, Falmer Press: 190–229.Google Scholar
  7. California Department of Industrial Relations (2000) 1998–1999 Biennial Report.Google Scholar
  8. Challis, J. and D. Elliman (1979) Child Workers Today. Sunbury, Quartermaine House (Anti-Slavery Society Study).Google Scholar
  9. Cohen, C. P. and H. A. Davidson, (eds) (1990) Children’s Rights in America: UN Convention on the Rights of the Child Compared with United States Law, American Bar Association Center on Children and the Law and Defense for Children International-USA.Google Scholar
  10. Committee on the Rights of the Child (1991) General guidelines regarding the form and content of initial reports to be submitted by States Parties under article 44, paragraph 1(a), of the Convention; CRC/C/5. Geneva.Google Scholar
  11. Committee on the Rights of the Child (2002) Concluding Observations; CRC/C/15/Add. 188. Geneva.Google Scholar
  12. Council of Europe (2001) Report by the Social, Health and Family Affairs Committee to the Parliamentary Assembly: Building a 21st century with and for children: follow-up to the European strategy for children (Recommendation 1286). Geneva, Council of Europe.Google Scholar
  13. Cunningham, H. (1991) The Children of the Poor: Representations of Childhood since the Seventeenth Century. Oxford, Blackwell.Google Scholar
  14. Davies, E. (1972) ‘Work out of school; the Emrys Davies report.’ Education, 10 November 1972: i-iv.Google Scholar
  15. Deutsche Bundestag (2000) Bericht der Bundesregierung über Kinderarbeit in Deutschland (Drucksache 14/3500).Google Scholar
  16. Donnelly, P. (1997) ‘Applying child labour laws to sport.’ International Review for the Sociology of Sport: 389–406.Google Scholar
  17. Employment of Children Bill-Research Paper 98/18. 1997/1998, February 3, 1998.Google Scholar
  18. Flekkøy, M. G. and N. H. Kaufman (1997) The Participation Rights of the Child: Rights and Responsibilities in Family and Society. London: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.Google Scholar
  19. Frederiksen, L. (1999) ‘Child and Youth Employment in Denmark; Comments on Children’s Work from their own Perspective.’ Childhood — a Global Journal of Child Research, vol. 6(1): 101–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fyfe, A. (1989) Child labour. Oxford, Polity Press.Google Scholar
  21. General Accounting Office (1991) Child Labor; Characteristics of Working Children, GAO/HRD-91-83BR. Washington, General Accounting Office.Google Scholar
  22. Glauser, B. (1997) ‘Street Children: Deconstructing a Construct’. Constructing and Reconstructing Childhood. A. James and A. Prout. London, Falmer Press: 145–164.Google Scholar
  23. Great Britain — Treasury (2003) Every child matters, CM. 5860. London: TSO.Google Scholar
  24. Greenberger, E. and L. D. Steinberg (1986) When Teenagers work: The Psychological and Social Costs of Adolescent Employment. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  25. Hobbs, S., M. Lavalette, et al. (1992) ‘The Emerging Problem of Child Labour.’ Critical Social Policy, 12, 1(34), summer: 93–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. van der Hoek, T. (2004) ‘Growing up in poverty, while living in an affluent society: personal experiences and coping strategies of Dutch poor children’ The Politics of Childhood: International Perspectives, Contemporary Developments. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  27. Human Rights Watch (2000) Fingers to the Bone: United States Failure to Protect Child Farmworkers, Lee Tucker, (ed.) New York: Human Rights Watch.Google Scholar
  28. ILO (1996) Child Labour: Targeting the Intolerable; Report VI(1). Geneva, International Labour Office.Google Scholar
  29. International Labour Office (2002) A future without child labour. Geneva, ILO.Google Scholar
  30. Jenks, C. (1996) Childhood. London; New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  31. Khair, S. (2000) ‘Child Labour Reconsidered: the Employment of the Girl Child in the Bangladesh Garment Industry’. Gender, law and social justice: international perspectives. A. Stewart. London, Blackstone: 119–137.Google Scholar
  32. Lantos, T. (1992) The Silence of the Kids: Children at Risk in the Workplace.’ Labor Law Journal, vol. 43(2): 67–70.Google Scholar
  33. Lavalette, M. (1994) Child Employment in the Capitalist Labour Market. Aldershot: Avebury.Google Scholar
  34. Mendelievich, E., (ed.) (1979) Children at work. Geneva, International Labour Office.Google Scholar
  35. Morrow, V. (1996) ‘Rethinking Childhood Dependency: Children’s Contribution to the Domestic Economy.’ The Sociological Review: 58–77.Google Scholar
  36. Neve, J. H. and P. H. Renooy (1989) Kinderarbeid in Nederland. Een verkenned onderzoek naar omvang en verschijningsvormen van kinder en jeugd arbeid in Nederland. s’Gravenhage, Ministerie van Sociale Zaken.Google Scholar
  37. Pettit, B., (ed.) (1998) Children and work in the UK: reassessing the issues. London: Child Poverty Action Group.Google Scholar
  38. Pond, C., A. Searle, et al. (1991) The hidden army: children at work in the 1990s. Series (Low Pay Unit pamphlet, no. 55). London: Low Pay Unit.Google Scholar
  39. Qvortrup, J. (2001) ‘School-work, paid work and the changing obligations of childhood’. Hidden Hands: International perspectives on children’s work and labour. P. Mizen, C. Pole and A. Bolton. London, RoutledgeFalmer: 91–107.Google Scholar
  40. Raad voor het Jeugdbeleid (1990) Jong geleerd oud gedaan?: een advies over de positie van kinderen en jeugdigen in de nieuwe arbeidstijdenwet. Rijswijk, Raad voor het Jeugdbeleid, Ministerie van Welzijn, Volksgezondheid en Cultuur.Google Scholar
  41. Save the Children (1998) ‘Children’s perspectives on work’. Children and work in the UK: reassessing the issues. B. Pettit. London, Child Poverty Action Group: 59–80.Google Scholar
  42. Seymour, J. (2004) ‘Entertaining Guests or Entertaining the Guests: Children’s Emotional Labour in Hotels, Pubs and Boarding Houses’. The Politics of Childhood: International Perspectives, Contemporary Developments, London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  43. State of California (1998) California Child Labor Laws 1998. Department of Industrial Relations, Division of Labor Standards Enforcement.Google Scholar
  44. State of California (2000) California Child Labor Laws 2000. Department of Industrial Relations, Division of Labor Standards Enforcement.Google Scholar
  45. Thomas, N. (2004) ‘Interpreting children’s needs: contested assumptions in the provision of welfare’. The Politics of Childhood: International Perspectives, Contemporary Developments. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  46. Trattner, W. I. (1970) Crusade for the Children; a history of the National Child Labor Committee and Child Labor reform in America. Chicago: Quadrangle Books.Google Scholar
  47. Tweede Kamer der Staten-Generaal (2000–2001) Opvang zwerfjongeren no. 28, 265, s’Gravenhage, SDU Uitgevers.Google Scholar
  48. UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre (2000) Innocenti Report Card no. 1, June 2000. ‘A league Table of Child Poverty in Rich Nations’. Florence.Google Scholar
  49. United Nations Commission for Human Rights (2002) Guidelines regarding initial reports to be submitted by States Parties under article 12, paragraph 1, of the Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography: 04/04/2002, CRC/OP/SA/1. Geneva: United Nations.Google Scholar
  50. Weisberg, D. K. (1985) Children of the Night: a study of adolescent prostitution. Lexington: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  51. Woll, L. (2000) The Convention on the Rights of the Child Impact Study. Stockholm: Save the Children.Google Scholar
  52. World Congress Against Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children (1996) Declaration and Agenda for Action. Stockholm.Google Scholar
  53. Zelizer, V. A. (1985) Pricing the Priceless Child. New York: Basic Books. (Revised, 12–03–2004).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wiebina Heesterman

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations