The ‘International’ in Democratization: Norms and the Middle Ground

  • Jean Grugel


The locus of Democratization Studies was for a long time squarely within comparative politics. Scholars of comparative politics tended to adopt agency-centred theories in which democratization was treated essentially as a function of the political behaviour, coalition-building and pact-making of actors from inside nation-states.1 Until the end of the 1990s, scholarship that paid attention to the role of international factors in democratization was relatively scarce. More recently, the international dimension in democratization has merited sustained and considered attention and a broad range of scholars now recognize that the international matters in a very fundamental way (Grugel, 2003). Nevertheless, there is no agreement on the circumstances under which it is salient or how the international and domestic link together. There is not even a clear consensus as to what, precisely, is meant when we talk of ‘the international’ in processes of democratization.


Norm Diffusion Comparative Politics Global Order Global Politics Transnational Network 
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© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2005

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  • Jean Grugel

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