Regionalism and Governance: a Critique

  • Mónica Serrano

Abstract

Even though additional acronyms are perhaps the last thing regionalist discourse needs, here are some of the FAQs (frequently asked questions) around which it has integrated.

Keywords

Entropy Depression Europe Income Posit 

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Notes

  1. 1.
    Edward D. Mansfield and Helen V. Milner, “The New Wave of Regionalism,” International Organization 53 (3) (Summer 1999), 618, 594, the latter quoting a phrase by Frank Gunter.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Patrick Morgan, “Regional Security Complexes and Regional Orders,” in David A. Lake and Patrick M. Morgan, Regional Orders: Building Security in a New World (Philadelphia: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1997), p. 23: “A review some years ago identified eight different labels for region and twenty-one different attributes of it in use.”Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    John J. Mearsheimer, “The False Promise of International Institutions,” International Security 19 (3) (Winter 1994/1995), 41.Google Scholar
  4. 5.
    Andrew Hurrell, “Regionalism In Theoretical Perspective,” in Louise Fawcett and Andrew Hurrell (eds), Regionalism in World Politics (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995), p. 45.Google Scholar
  5. 6.
    Arvind Panagariya, “The Regionalism Debate: An Overview,” The World Economy 22 (4) (1999) p. 482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 7.
    Compare, for one of many instances, Gordon Mace, Louis Bélanger, and contributors, The Americas In Transition: The Contours of Regionalism (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 1999), p. 8: “How should one analyze contemporary regionalism as applied to the Americas? The first wave of theoretical studies on regional integration was centered more or less on three analytical frameworks that were strongly influenced by the European unification process. The neofunctionalist school…”Google Scholar
  7. 8.
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  10. 15.
    Stephan Haggard, “The Political Economy of Regionalism in Asia and the Americas,” in Edward D. Mansfield and Helen V. Milner (eds), The Political Economy of Regionalism (New York: Columbia University Press, 1997), p. 25.Google Scholar
  11. The always influential Albert O. Hirschman, while mildly taking “venerable” Viner to task for not integrating his economic with his political analysis, in 1979 took up the protectionist implications of trade diversion for the European Community’s Common Agricultural Policy. Essays in Trespassing: Economics to Politics and Beyond (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984), pp. 270–2.Google Scholar
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  14. 22.
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  15. 27.
    Robert Devlin and Antoni Estevadeordal, “What’s New in the New Regionalism in the Americas?,” in Victor Bulmer-Thomas (ed.), Regional Integration in Latin America and the Caribbean: The Political Economy of Open Regionalism (London: Institute of Latin American Studies, 2001), p. 19: “Major concerns are about trade diversion and the undermining of the multilateral system.”Google Scholar
  16. 28.
    Antonio Ortiz Mena López Negrete, The Political Economy of Regionalism: Current Theorizing and Preliminary Observations on the G-3 FTA (Mexico: CIDE, 2000), p. 1. Ortiz Mena’s study of the G-3 Free Trade Agreement admirably bears out his scepticism, by showing, that: “Five years before the entry into force of the G-3, Mexico’s trade with Colombia accounted for only 4 per cent of its total exports, [but] in 1995 this figure had actually gone down to 0.64 per cent…. Regarding Colombia, in 1990 its exports to Mexico accounted for 0.62 per cent of its total exports and by 1995 this figure still was extremely low: 0.01 per cent” (p. 14). Venezuela’s exports to Mexico between 1990 and 1995 remained at 0.0097 per cent of its total exports (p. 16). The conclusion is that “the agreement does not appear to make much sense strictly in terms of current flows of trade and investment between the three countries,” p. 32. He also counts over 1,000 rules of origin.Google Scholar
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    Robert A. Pastor, Toward A North American Community: Lessons from the Old World for the New (Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics, 2001), p. 180.Google Scholar
  18. 35.
    Ruggie, Constructing the world Polity, pp. 24–6 points to some sparse examples, but concludes that constructivism has been hampered by the lack of “a deeper theoretical understanding of possible processes of transformation.” Social constructivism is thus not entirely immune from the criticism he levels at neorealism: “Left unexplored… are ideas of the sort that John. F. Kennedy had in mind when he honored Jean Monnet by saying: you are transforming Europe by a constructive idea,” p. 18. The main follow-up to Deutsch et al. 1957 Political Community and the North Atlantic Area was Emanuel Adler and Michael Barnett (eds), Security Communities (Cambridge University Press, 1998).Google Scholar
  19. 46.
    Richard Dawkins, The Selfish Gene (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989), p. 8.Google Scholar
  20. 47.
    Björn Hettne, “The New Regionalism: A Prologue,” in B. Hettne and A. Inotai (eds), Comparing Regionalisms: Implications for Global Development and International Security (Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2001), p. xvii.Google Scholar
  21. 49.
    Ian Clark, Globalization and Fragmentation: International Relations in the Twentieth Century (Oxford University Press, 1997), p. 3.Google Scholar
  22. 52.
    Not just Latin luck. See Dirk Messner and Franz Nusceler, “World Politics — Structures and Trends,” in Paul Kennedy, Dirk Messner and Franz Nuscheler (eds), Global Trends & Global Governance (London: Pluto, 2002), p. 141: “The concurrence of globalization and regionalization is one of the structure-building trends of world society and world politics alike. Globalization will see the emergence of a new hierarchy of the world’s regions, it will further strengthen the ‘OCED world,’ and will decouple the world’s poor regions from the dynamics of the world economy.”Google Scholar
  23. 53.
    Saul B. Cohen, “Geopolitics in the New World Era: A New Perspective in an Old Discipline,” in George J. Demko and William B. Wood (eds), Reordering the World: Geopolitical Perspectives on the 21st Century (Boulder: Westview Press, 1994), p. 21.Google Scholar
  24. 57.
    R.O. Keohane and J.S. Nye (eds), Transnational Relations and World Politics (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1971).Google Scholar
  25. 62.
    John Gerard Ruggie, “The Global Compact as Learning Network,” Global Governance 7 (4) (October–December 2001), 377.Google Scholar
  26. 63.
    See, for example, S. Neil MacFarlane and Thomas G. Weiss, “Regional Organizations and Regional Security,” Security Studies 2 (1) (Autumn 1992), 6–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 67.
    Anne-Marie Slaughter, “Everyday Global Governance,” Daedalus 1 (Winter 2003), 87.Google Scholar

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© Monica Serrano 2005

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  • Mónica Serrano

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