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The Pen and the Sword: Political Catechisms and Resistance to Napoleon

  • Emilie Delivré

Abstract

Research on the important topic of the impact of Napoleon outside France is expanding, but not yet fully developed. In particular, our knowledge regarding the influence of resistance to Napoleon in Europe as a whole is still rather limited. For example, what factors could explain the diversity of European national reactions to the Napoleonic imperium? Does the answer lie in differences between the strategies that were adopted by the nations of Europe, or differences in the projects of Napoleon himself? Or is does it lie in pre-existing and deeply-rooted differences between the various national histories of Europe? And, if this last is the case, what importance should be attributed to such factors as revolution (or its absence), the Enlightenment, the dominant religious confession and national unity (or, again, its absence)? Can we expect to find a similar reaction to Napoleon in the cases of Germany, which was divided in terms of both politics and religion, Italy, which was divided in terms of politics but united in terms of religion, and Spain, which was united in terms of politics and religion alike?

Keywords

Eighteenth Century German State National Unity German Case Spanish Text 
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Notes

  1. 1.
    For the period of the French Revolution, cf. B. Durruty, ‘Les auteurs de catéchismes révolutionnaires (1789–1799)’, Annales Historiques de la Révolution française, no. 283 (January, 1991), pp. 1–18; J. Hébrard, ‘La Révolution expliquée aux enfants : les catéchismes de l’an II’, in M.F. Levy (ed.) L’Enfant, la Famille et la Révolution Française (Paris, 1990), pp. 171–92;Google Scholar
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  13. 4.
    For a discussion of these issues, cf. J.-C. Dhotel, Les origines du catéchisme moderne d’après les premiers manuels imprimés en France (Paris, 1967), andGoogle Scholar
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    For a discussion of these issues, cf. W. Harle et al. (eds), Theologische Realenzyklopaedie (Berlin, 1988–98), XVII, pp. 686–710; ibid., XXIX, pp. 33–49.Google Scholar
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    C. Ginzburg, History, Rhetoric and Proof (Hanover, 1999), p. 77.Google Scholar
  18. 26.
    For just two prominent examples, cf. L. Blanc, Catéchisme des socialistes (Paris, 1849), and R. Owen, The Catechism of the New Moral World (Leeds, 1838).Google Scholar

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© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2005

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  • Emilie Delivré

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