The Challenge of Transition from War to Peace in Burundi

  • Janvier Désiré Nkurunziza
  • Floribert Ngaruko
Part of the International Economic Association Series book series (IEA)


Since independence in 1962, Burundi has had, up to the time of writing, five civil wars: in 1965, 1972, 1988, 1991 and 1993. Given that the root causes of these wars have never been properly addressed, we consider these as five episodes of one conflict that has claimed the lives of about 10 per cent of the population. The ongoing 1993 conflict has been the longest, costliest and most complex. It has claimed 250,000 victims, has created up to 700,000 refugees and about 900,000 internally displaced people (Nkurunziza and Ngaruko, 2002b). In terms of direct economic costs, the first four episodes had little impact and were relatively short. It is the fifth episode that has had dramatic consequences. Nkurunziza (2001) and Nkurunziza and Ngaruko (2002b) cover the social and economic consequences in greater detail.


International Community Peace Accord Peace Agreement Rebel Group International Crisis Group 
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Copyright information

© International Economic Association 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Janvier Désiré Nkurunziza
  • Floribert Ngaruko

There are no affiliations available

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