Exile Armies pp 101-114 | Cite as

African Exile Armies: ZANLA, ZIPRA and the Politics of Disunity

  • Edmund Yorke

Abstract

Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army (ZANLA) and Zimbabwe Peoples Revolutionary Army (ZIPRA) comprised the official military wings of the two main parties opposed to the white supremacist Rhodesian Front regime led by Prime Minister Ian Smith. Smith’s government had consistently refused to accept the principle of black majority rule and, under British and international pressure, had finally rebelled against British rule in November 1965.2 ZANLA was attached to the political party ZANU (Zimbabwe African National Union) ultimately led by Robert Mugabe, and ZIPRA comprised the military wing of the Joshua Nkomo’s ZAPU party (Zimbabwe African Peoples Union). Both movements fought a protracted nearly 15 year bush war against the Rhodesian Security Forces drawing support largely from the adjacent African host countries of Mozambique, Zambia, Tanzania, Botswana and Angola (commonly referred to as the Front Line States).3 They also received limited support from two other African liberation groups the African National Congress (ANC) and Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (FRELIMO).

Keywords

Radar Defend Cuban Counter Insurgency Angola 

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Notes

  1. D. Burns, ‘Insurgency as a Struggle for Legitimation: The Case of Southern Africa’, Small Wars and Insurgencies, 1(5) (Spring 1994), 33.Google Scholar
  2. M. Wight, Systems of States (Leicester: Leicester University Press, 1977). Encl. in Burns, ‘Insurgency as a Struggle for Legitimation: The Case of Southern Africa’, p. 33.Google Scholar
  3. A. Guelke, ‘International Legitimacy, Self-determination and Northern Ireland’, Review of International Studies, 2(1) (January 1984), 38.Google Scholar
  4. D. Lan, Guns and Rain (London: James Currey, 1985), p. 164.Google Scholar
  5. N. J. Kriger, Zimbabwe’s Guerilla War (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992), p. 242.Google Scholar
  6. I. Smith, The Great Betrayal (London: Blake Publishing, 1997), p. 247.Google Scholar
  7. J. Brickhill, ‘Daring to Storm the Heavens; The Military Strategy of ZAPU 1976 to 1979’, in N. Bhebe and T. Ranger (eds), Soldiers in Zimbabwe’s Liberation War (Oxford: James Currey, 1995), p. 54.Google Scholar
  8. N. Bhebe and T. Ranger (eds), Society in Zimbabwe’s Liberation War (Oxford: James Currey, 1996), p. 178.Google Scholar
  9. K. Grundy, ‘Host Countries and the Southern African Liberation Struggle’, Africa Quarterly, 12(2) (April–June 1970), 20.Google Scholar
  10. A. R. Wilkinson, ‘Insurgency in Rhodesia, 1957–1973: An Account and Assessment’, Adelphi Papers, no. 100 (London: 1973), p. 21.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edmund Yorke

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