Exile Armies pp 144-158 | Cite as

The Great Lakes: Crucible of Exiled Armies?

  • Stuart Gordon


In the 1990s, much of the Great Lakes region was convulsed in violence with a death toll in excess of 2.75 million. Conflicts in Rwanda, Burundi, Zaire and Uganda, while not simply caused by, nevertheless share Hutu and Tutsi animosity as a common factor in their own unique conflict environments. The genocidal conflict environments. The genocidal conflict between Hutu and Tutsi in Rwanda has also been a central factor in the creation of a variety of ‘exiled’ armies in the region.2 This chapter examines the emergence of several of these exiled armies and considers the social and political processes at work in their creation. Moreover, it describes how the politics of internal political exclusion are a root cause of conflict within the region.


Great Lake Great Lake Region Child Soldier Multiparty Democracy French Troop 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. G. Prunier, The Rwanda Crisis: History of a Genocide (New York: Columbia University Press, 1995), p. 367.Google Scholar
  2. R. Howard, ‘Civil Conflict in Sub Saharan Africa: Internally Generated Causes’, International Journal, 11(4) (Winter 1995–96), 27–53.Google Scholar
  3. J. Fenton, ‘A Short History of Hutu Authoritarianism’, New York Review of Books, 15 February 1996, 7.Google Scholar
  4. C. Williams, Aux Sources de l’hecatombe Rwandaise (Brussels-Paris: L’Harmattan, 1995), p. 46.Google Scholar
  5. G. Prunier, 1959–1994 History of Genocide (London: Hurst, 1995), p. 64.Google Scholar
  6. See also: K. Rupesinghe (ed), Conflict Resolution in Uganda (London: James Currey, 1989).Google Scholar
  7. K. Marten, ‘Eyewitness to Genocide: The United Nations and Rwanda’ Political Science Quarterly Vol. 117, no. 3 Fall 2002.Google Scholar
  8. D. Shearer, ‘Africa’s Great War’, Survival, 41(25) (Summer, 1999), 89–106.Google Scholar
  9. J. F. Clark, ‘Democracy Dismantled in the Congo Republic’, Current History, 97(619) (May 1998), 193.Google Scholar
  10. P. Rosenblum, ‘Kabila’s Congo’, Current History, 97(619) (May 1998), 195.Google Scholar
  11. See W. Reno, ‘Sovereignty and Personal Rule in Zaire’, African Studies Quarterly, 1(3) (1998).Google Scholar
  12. J. Ayoade, ‘States without Citizens’, in D. Rothchild and N. Chazon (eds), The Precarious Balance: State and Society in Africa (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1988), p. 196.Google Scholar
  13. Lynne Duke, ‘Revolt in Congo Had Multiethnic Genesis’, Washington Post, 27 October 1998, p. 20.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stuart Gordon

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations