The test taker box in the frameworks above is directly connected to the theory-based validity box because these individual characteristics will directly impact on the way individuals process the test task set up by the context validity box. Obviously, the tasks themselves will also be constructed with the overall test population and the target use situation clearly in mind as well as with concern for their theory-based validity.
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- Angoff (1989) deals with investigation for context bias in TOEFL.Google Scholar
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