External Validities in Action
Once a test has been successfully developed, administered and the results shown to be reliable, there still remains the question of what other evidence needs to be generated to demonstrate that it is valid. Two further steps need to be taken. The first involves looking for an external criterion beyond the test in question against which it might be measured.
KeywordsEurope Stake Burrows
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- Alderson and Wall (1996) special issue of Language Testing devoted to washback.Google Scholar
- Banerjee (2003) provides an extensive survey of the literature on predictive validity and an innovative approach to how we might reconceptualize it in terms of cost to students and other stakeholders if admitted at various levels of test performance, as against degree of overlap with the criterion course result.Google Scholar
- Green (2003) provides a comprehensive overview of the literature relating to backwash and how to measure it.Google Scholar
- Hughes (2003) provides an informative and accessible account of how to achieve beneficial backwash.Google Scholar