Advertisement

Molotov pp 166-186 | Cite as

The Nazi-Soviet Pact and After 1939–1941

  • Derek Watson
Part of the Studies in Russian and East European History and Society book series

Abstract

Molotov became preoccupied with foreign affairs from the time of his appointment as head of Narkomindel, although he remained Sovnarkom chairman until 1941. The significance of his new duties was evident at the Central Committee plenum, March 1940 where his contribution was limited to foreign policy.1 The rise of Nikolai Voznesenskii as Gosplan chairman, his promotion to Sovnarkom first vice-chairman in March 1941, when he replaced Molotov as chairman of the Ekonomicheskii Sovet (Economic Council), the successor body to STO as Sovnarkom’s main standing committee, confirms Molotov’s preoccupation with foreign affairs. It was also apparent in his lack of prominence at the XVIII Party Conference, February 1941, where he said nothing following Malenkov’s report that criticised the work of the commissariats, or in support of Voznesenkii’s report on planning.2

Keywords

Foreign Policy Baltic State Mutual Assistance Romanian Territory Soviet Force 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 7.
    Bezymenskii, L. A., ‘Sovetsko-Germanskie dogovory 1939g.: novye dokumenty i starye problemy’, Novaya i Noveishaya Istoriya, (hereinafter NNI) no. 4, 1998, p. 15.Google Scholar
  2. 9.
    Haslam, J., ‘Soviet-German Relations and the Origins of the Second World War: The Jury is Still Out’, Journal of Modern History, vol. 69, 1997, p. 794.Google Scholar
  3. 17.
    The non-aggression pact of Rapallo 1926, renewed in Berlin in 1933.Google Scholar
  4. 18.
    U.S. Department of State, FRUS, Diplomatic Papers 1939, vol. 1, Washington, DC: 1952, pp. 327–9.Google Scholar
  5. 26.
    See Roberts, G., ‘The Soviet Decision for a Pact with Nazi-Germany’, Europe-Asia Studies, vol. 44, no. 1, 1992, p. 68.Google Scholar
  6. 47.
    Bezymenskii, L., ‘The Secret Protocols of 1939 as a Problem of Soviet Historiography’, in Gorodetsky, G., ed., Soviet Foreign Policy 1917–1991: a Retrospective London: 1994, p. 76.Google Scholar
  7. 48.
    Roberts, ‘The Soviet Decision for a Pact’, p. 71. See for instance ‘Sobytiya 1939 Goda-Vzglyad s Poluvekovoi Distantsii’, Pravda, 18 August 1989.Google Scholar
  8. 49.
    ‘Vnov’ o dogovore 1939 goda’, Vestnik ministerstva inostrannykh del SSSR, 28 February 1991, pp. 56–63; Bezymenskii, L. A., ‘Sekretnye protokoly 1939g. kak problema sovetskoi istoriografii’, Rossiya i sovremennyi mir, no. 1(10) 1996, pp. 143–4.Google Scholar
  9. 57.
    Sevestyanov, P., Before the Nazi Invasion: Soviet Diplomacy in September 1939–June 1941, Moscow: 1981, p. 75; Roberts, The Unholy Alliance, p. 157; Beloff. M., The Foreign Policy of Soviet Russia, vol. 2, 1936–41, London: 1949, pp. 280–2; McSherry, Stalin, Hitler and Europe, vol. 1, pp. 248–9, quoting The Polish White Book, London: 1940, pp. 187–8, 209–10.Google Scholar
  10. 63.
    Nevezhin, V. A., ‘The Making of Propaganda Concerning USSR Foreign Policy 1939–1941’, in Rosenfeldt, N. E., Jensen, B. and Kulavig, E., Mechanisms of Power in the Soviet Union, Basingstoke: 2000, p. 154.Google Scholar
  11. 66.
    Izvestiya, 18 September 1939.Google Scholar
  12. 67.
    Weinberg, G. L., Germany and the Soviet Union, 1939–1941, Leiden: 1954, p. 56.Google Scholar
  13. 68.
    Vinton, L., ‘The Katyn Documents: Politics and History’, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty Research Report, vol. 2, no. 4, 1993 p. 23.Google Scholar
  14. 72.
    Nazi-Soviet Relations, p. 103, 105–7; Fleischhauer, I., ‘The Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact: the German Version’, International Affairs, August 1991, pp. 119, 120, 122.Google Scholar
  15. 76.
    Smulkstys, J., ‘The Incorporation of the Baltic States in the Soviet Union’, Lituanus, vol. 14, no. 2, 1968, pp. 25–6.Google Scholar
  16. 78.
    Gubergrits, A., ed., Ot pakta Molotova-Ribbentropa do dogovora o basakh, Talinin: 1990, p. 44.Google Scholar
  17. 79.
    DGFP, vol. VI, p. 1076, 806. See Tarulis, A. N., Soviet Policy towards the Baltic States 1918–1940, Notre Dame: 1959, pp. 119–20, 148.Google Scholar
  18. 80.
    Testimony of Estonian Foreign Minister, K. Selter, in ‘Documents: Negotiating in the Kremlin: the Estonian Experience of 1939’, Lituanus, vol. 14, no. 2, 1968, p. 55; Tarulis, Soviet Policy towards the Baltic States, pp. 148–9. For these negotiations see also Mel’tyukhov, M. I., Narashchivanie sovetskogo voennogo prisutstviya v pribaltike v 1939–1941 godakh’, Otechestvennaya istoriya, no. 4, 1999, p. 48.Google Scholar
  19. 84.
    Izvestiya, 18 September 1939. McSherry, J.E., Stalin, Hitler and Europe, vol. 2, The Imbalance of Power 1939–1941, Arlington: 1970, p. 11; ‘Negotiating in the Kremlin: the Estonian Experience of 1939’, pp. 57–60, 78; Ot pakta MolotovaRibbentropa do dogovora o basakh, pp. 134–43, 167–73, 173–180, 180–9.Google Scholar
  20. 86.
    Tarulis, Soviet Policy Towards the Baltic States, p. 155. See also Mel’tyukhov, ‘Narashchivanie sovetskogo voennogo prisutstviya v pribaltike v 1939–1941 godakh’, p. 51.Google Scholar
  21. 95.
    Kaslas, B. J., ‘The Lithuanian Strip in Soviet-German Secret Diplomacy, 1939–1941’, Journal of Baltic Studies, vol. 4, no. 3, 1973, p. 215.Google Scholar
  22. 99.
    McSherry, Stalin, Hitler and Europe, vol. 2, pp. 90–97; Mel’tyukhov, ‘Narashchivanie sovetskogo voennogo prisutstviya v pribaltike v 1939–1941 godakh’, pp. 56–68; ‘The Baltic Countries Join the Soviet Union (Documents on the USSR’s Relations with the Baltic Countries in 1939 and 1940),’ International Affairs, no. 4, April 1990, pp. 97–124.Google Scholar
  23. 103.
    See documents published in Morozova, I. and Takhnenko, G., ‘“The Winter War”: Documents on Soviet-Finnish Relations 1939–40’, International Affairs, no. 9, 1989, pp. 53–4 and McSherry, Stalin. Hitler and Europe, vol. 2, p. 17; Van Dyke, C., The Soviet Invasion of Finland 1939–1940, London: 1997, pp. 4, 6; Tanner, V., The Winter War: Finland against Russia, 1939–1940, Stanford: 1950, pp. 74–6.Google Scholar
  24. 110.
    DGFP, vol. VIII, p. 427. McSherry, Stalin, Hitler and Europe, vol. 2, p. 32; Upton, A. F., Finland 1939–1940, London: 1974, p. 39.Google Scholar
  25. 111.
    Tanner, The Winter War, pp. 66–7; Upton, Finland 1939–1940, p. 40. For an overview of these negotiations see Van Dyke, The Soviet Invasion of Finland 1939–1940, pp. 14–20; Jakobson, The Diplomacy of the Winter War, p. 135.Google Scholar
  26. 113.
    Kollontai, A., ‘“Seven Shots” in the Winter of 1939’, International Affairs, January 1990, pp. 185–6.Google Scholar
  27. 126.
    Sokolov, V. V., ‘K 200-letiyu MID ROSSII’, Diplomaticheskii Vestnik, no. 7, 2002, p. 147.Google Scholar
  28. 141.
    Mar’ina, V. V., ‘Dnevnik G. Dimitrova’, Voprosy Istorii, no. 7, 2000, p. 41. The text of Molotov’s speech is not available but the tenor was presumably the same as that to the Supreme Soviet, two days later.Google Scholar
  29. 142.
    Sheinis, Maksim Maksimovich Litvinov, pp. 367–8; Haslam, J., ‘Soviet Foreign Policy 1939–1941: Isolation and Expansion’, Soviet Union/Union Soviétique, vol. 18, 1991, pp. 116–17.Google Scholar
  30. 161.
    Bezymenskii, L. A., ‘Direktivy I. V. Stalina V. M. Molotovu pered poezdkoi v Berlin v noyabre 1940g.’, NNI, no. 4, 1995, pp.76–9. Cf. Roberts, G., ‘Stalin, the Pact with Germany and the Origins of Postwar Soviet Diplomatic Historiography’, Journal of Cold War Studies, vol. 4, no. 2, 2002, p. 99.Google Scholar
  31. 162.
    Dallin, SovietRussias Foreign Policy, p. 270, 273. For the British reaction see Watson, D., ‘Molotov, the Making of the Grand Alliance and the Second Front 1939–1942’, Europe-Asia Studies, vol. 54, no. 1, 2002, pp. 53–4.Google Scholar
  32. 163.
    Waddington, G. T., ‘Ribbentrop and the Soviet Union, 1937–1941’, in Erickson, J. and Dilks, D., Barbarossa: the Axis and the Allies, Edinburgh: 1994, pp. 21–2.Google Scholar
  33. 164.
    Dallin, Soviet Russias Foreign Policy, p. 271 estimates the size of the group as 32; Izvestiya, 13 November 1940, Bezymenskii, L. A., ‘Vizit V. M. Molotova v Berlin v noyabre 1940g. v svete novykh dokumentov’, NNI, no. 6, 1995, p. 131; Kershaw, Hitler 1936–1945: Nemesis, p. 334 states that the Internationale was not played, to avoid the possibility of the Berliners, familiar with the words, joining in.Google Scholar
  34. 165.
    Volkov, V. K. ‘Sovetsko-germanskie otnosheniya vo vtoroi polovine 1940 goda’, Voprosy istorii, no. 2, 1997, pp. 8–9, quoting APRF, 56/1/1161, 147–55; Bezymenskii, ‘Direktivy I.V.Stalina V.M. Molotovu pered poezdkoi v Berlin v noyabre 1940g.’, pp. 76–9.Google Scholar
  35. 166.
    See Bezymenskii, L., Gitler i Stalin pered skhvatkoi, Moscow: 2000, pp. 346–50; Gorlov, S. A., ed., ‘Perepiska V.M. Molotova s I.V. Stalinym noyabr’ 1940 goda’, Voenno-istoricheskii Zhurnal, no. 9, 1992, pp. 18–21. Stalin’s Office Diary contains no record of Molotov meeting him there in the days immediately prior to the visit.Google Scholar
  36. 167.
    Pechatnov, V. O., trans. Zubok, V. M. ‘“The Allies are Pressing on You to Break Your Will …” Foreign Policy Correspondence between Stalin and Molotov and Other Politburo Members, September 1945–December 1946’, Cold War International History Project, Working Paper no. 26, Washington, DC: 1999, p. 1. See also Zubok, V., and Pleshakov, C., Inside the Kremlins Cold War: from Stalin to Khrushchev, Cambridge MA: 1996, pp. 86–7.Google Scholar
  37. 168.
    Schmidt, P., Statist auf diplomatischer Bühne 1923–1945, Bonn: 1954, pp. 515–16.Google Scholar
  38. 169.
    Nazi-Soviet Relations, pp. 217–25; The Soviet record of the discussions from APRF are printed in Sevost’yanov, G. N., ‘Poezdka V. M. Molotova v Berlin v noyabre 1940 g.’, NNI, no. 5, 1993, pp. 69–99. They make no reference to Molotov’s question about the USSR turning south, ibid., pp. 69–73.Google Scholar
  39. 174.
    Berezhkov, V., History in the Making (Memoirs of World War II Diplomacy), Moscow: 1998, pp. 26–7.Google Scholar
  40. 179.
    See below p. 199. See also Berezhkov, V. M., S diplomaticheskoi missiei v Berlin 1940–1941, Moscow: 1966, p. 47.Google Scholar
  41. 181.
    Bezymenskii, L., ‘On the Eve: Vyacheslav Molotov’s Talks in Berlin in November 1940’, International Affairs, no. 9, 1991, p. 85.Google Scholar
  42. 186.
    Gorlov, S. A., ‘Peregovory V. M. Molotova v Berlin v noyabre 1940 goda’, Voenno-istoricheskii Zhurnal, no. 6–7, 1992, p. 46.Google Scholar
  43. 188.
    Sipols, V. Ya., Tainy diplomaticheskie kanun Velikoi Otechestvennoi Voiny, Moscow: 1997, p. 275.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Derek Watson 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Derek Watson
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Russian and East European StudiesThe University of BirminghamUK

Personalised recommendations