The increasing incorporation since the 1960s of Union citizens and guestworkers of Mediterranean origin into the national political domain of West European states, by treating them as (more) equal to national citizens through participation in social security systems and local elections, can be seen as an anomaly within the national model of citizenship. In fact, as Soysal (1994: 3) argues, ‘it challenges the predominant assumption that national citizenship is imperative to membership in a polity’. After studying the question of territorial admission in the previous chapter, via the case of asylum policy, we now need to focus on the distribution and legitimization of civil, political and social entitlements to non-citizens resident within the territory of the European state. Is formal citizenship no longer essential to membership in the national political community? And, if so, how important is the contribution of European integration to such a process of extending citizens’ rights within the territory of the national state? It was noted in Chapter 4 on European integration and immigration that, whereas the free movement acquis steadily developed under the impulse of negative integration, its personal scope has been limited largely to Community workers and, later, Union citizens.
KeywordsMigration Europe Income Assure Turkey
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