Since the 1990s, many Annex I countries have implemented some type of climate change policy or instituted other policies that affect greenhouse gas emissions (see Table 4.1). These policies range from direct regulation (for instance, landfill gas capture, labelling requirements and support for renewable energy) to voluntary agreements with industry. Very few Annex I countries managed to meet the Convention aim of reducing their individual emissions to 1990 levels by 2000. The Convention aim was reached overall but this was due to a steep decline in greenhouse gas emissions in countries with economies in transition (emissions in other Annex I countries rose by some 6 per cent). And within these countries a very limited number of industry undertook unilateral voluntary reduction programmes since there was insufficient incentive to justify adding on costs to production.
KeywordsTrading Scheme Emission Trading Emission Trading Scheme Emission Trading System Trading Programme
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