From margins to mainstream

  • Ruth Levitas


This chapter examines New Labour’s record between 1997 and 2004 in terms of the delivery of social inclusion. It uses the RED, SID, MUD model to examine the range of policies developed across both terms of government, enabling us to see what has been achieved in tackling exclusion, and to explore whether there has been a shift back to RED since 1997. It highlights the contradictions that have resulted from the continued co-presence of and shifting between the different discourses. The obvious starting point of this analysis is the work of the Social Exclusion Unit itself, whose launch is discussed in Chapter 8, but this is no longer the primary domain. by the end of Blair’s first term, social exclusion had become a mainstream issue in both UK and European Policy, a shift reflected in the development of indicators to measure progress in tackling exclusion. Developing such indicators was initially part of the SEU’s remit. By early 1999, the best advice the Unit could offer was to consult an independent report issued by the New Policy Institute (NPI) in 1998, detailing a battery of forty-six indicators of poverty and social exclusion, and intended to form the basis of an annual audit. Once the two years of sticking to Tory spending plans were over, poverty returned to the government agenda.


Social Exclusion Asylum Seeker Social Inclusion Teenage Pregnancy Child Poverty 
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Copyright information

© Ruth Levitas 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ruth Levitas
    • 1
  1. 1.University of BristolEngland

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