Smith’s Immodest Proposals for Public Expenditures

  • Gavin Kennedy


Justice is an essential pillar of society. Its expense has to be provided for either by the litigants or by the state from taxation. Where the officers of justice raise revenue for their recompense it leads to corruption (whoever has the largest ‘present’ for the judge had the best chance of wining the case)1 and where it is dispensed free of charge, differential payments to lawyers and advisors necessarily imbalances the chances of success in favour of the hirers of the most talented (i.e., expensive) adversarial advocacy. Justice was the State’s second duty.


Public Expenditure Penal Colony East India Company Differential Payment Provincial Administration 
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Copyright information

© Gavin Kennedy 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gavin Kennedy
    • 1
  1. 1.EdinburghUK

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