Advertisement

Party Structure and the Whigs in British Politics

  • William Anthony Hay
Part of the Studies in Modern History book series (SMH)

Abstract

After the Foxite-dominated Ministry of All the Talents collapsed in 1807, the main body of the Whigs spent over two decades out of office, and the brief tenure of the Talents itself marked only a short caesura in the party’s exclusion from power since the early 1780s. William Pitt the Younger and his political heirs had held together a remarkably resilient set of administrations, which continued through the last years of the war against France and the peace that followed. Lord Liverpool, who governed longest of Pitt’s protégés from 1812 until his stroke in 1827, faced severe pressure without irretrievably losing the confidence of the Crown or the House of Commons. His Whig opponents led by Lord Grey consistently failed to establish their standing as an alternative source of leadership in spite of their ability to inflict occasional defeats on issues such as the Orders in Council and income tax. Repeated failures to translate those victories into a change of administration left the Whigs increasingly on the political margins.

Keywords

Party System French Revolution Repeal Campaign Military Policy Prince Regent 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 1.
    James J. Sack, From Jacobite to Conservative: Reaction and Orthodoxy in Britain, c. 1760–1832 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993), 42–5.Google Scholar
  2. Philip Harling, The Waning of ‘Old Corruption:’ The Politics of Economical Reform in Britain, 1777–1846 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996), 47–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    S.H. Romilly, Letters to Ivy from the First Earl of Dudley (London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1905), 58.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    J. Parry, ‘Constituencies, Elections, and Members of Parliament, 1790–1820’, Parliamentary History, 7.1(1988), 153.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Denis Gray, Spencer Perceval: The Evangelical Prime Minister, 1762–1812 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1963), 102.Google Scholar
  6. 9.
    Austin Mitchell, The Whigs in Opposition, 1815–30 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1967), 60.Google Scholar
  7. 11.
    Peter Fraser, Tarty Voting in the House of Commons, 1812–27’, English Historical Review 98(October 1983): 763–4; Thorne, I: 263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 12.
    Robert Stewart, The Foundations of the Conservative Party, 1830–67 (London: Longmans, 1978), 16–17.Google Scholar
  9. 15.
    Caroline Robbins, ‘Discordant Parties: A Study of the Acceptance of Party by Englishmen’, Political Science Quarterly, 73(1958):505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Robert Willman, ‘The Origins of “Whig” and “Tory” in English Political Language’, Historical Journal, 17:2(1974), 264.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 17.
    Frederick A. Pottle, ed., Boswell in Holland, 1763–64 (New York: McGraw Hill, 1952), 129–30.Google Scholar
  12. 19.
    Frank O’Gorman, The Emergence of the British Two Party System, 1760–1832 (London: Edward Arnold, 1982), 56.Google Scholar
  13. 21.
    A.S. Foord, His Majesty’s Opposition, 1714–1830 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1964), 444Google Scholar
  14. Josceline Bagot, George Canning and His Friends, 2 vols (New York: E.P. Dutton and Co., 1909), 1, 148Google Scholar
  15. Hawkesbury’s speech, Parl. Deb., 1st ser., 4(May 10, 1804): 691; Sack, Jacobite to Conservative, 67–9, 73.Google Scholar
  16. 24.
    J.E. Cookson, Lord Liverpool’s Administration: The Crucial Years, 1815–22 (Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press, 1975), 40; Mitchell, 2.Google Scholar
  17. 26.
    J.C.D. Clark, ‘The Decline of Party, 1740–60’, English Historical Review, 93.368(July 1978):511.Google Scholar
  18. 30.
    W. Thomas, ‘Whigs and Radicals in Westminster: The Election of 1819’, Guildhall Miscellany 3.3(October 1970):184; Jenkins, 14; Clark, English Society, 499.Google Scholar
  19. 31.
    A.D. Kriegel, Holland House Diaries, 1831–40: The Diary of Richard Vassal Fox, 3rd Lord Holland with Extracts from the Diary of Dr. John Allen (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1977) xiv.Google Scholar
  20. 32.
    Castlereagh’s speech, Parl. Deb. 1st ser., 35(7 February 1817):270–1.Google Scholar
  21. Western’s speech, Parl. Deb. 2nd ser., 9(11 June 1823):834.Google Scholar
  22. 35.
    Cannon, The Fox-North Coalition: The Crisis of the Constitution (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1969), 235–6.Google Scholar
  23. 36.
    William Banks Taylor, ‘The Foxite Party and Foreign Politics, 1806–16’, (Ph.D. diss., University of London, 1974), 18.Google Scholar
  24. F. O’Gorman, ‘Pitt and the “Tory” Reaction’, in Britain and the French Revolution, 1789–1815, H.T. Dickinson, ed., (London: Macmillan Education, 1989), 27, 36.Google Scholar
  25. 38.
    J.J. Sack, The Grenvillites, 1801–29: Party Politics and Faction in the Age of Pitt and Liverpool (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1979), 70–5.Google Scholar
  26. Peter Jupp, Lord Grenville, 1759–1834 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1985), 328–9.Google Scholar
  27. 41.
    Henry Brougham, Historical Sketches of Statesmen Who Flourished in the Time of George III, 2 vols (Philadephia: Parry & Macmillan, 1842), 1:202; Sack, Grenvillites, 153.Google Scholar
  28. 42.
    Dean Rapp, ‘The Left-Wing Whigs: Whitbread, The Mountain and Reform, 1809–15’, Journal of British Studies 21:2(Spring 1982), 35–6, 59; The Anti-Royal Menagerie’, Satirist, 1 December 1812, listed in English Cartoons and Satirical Prints, 1320–1832 in the British Museum (Cambridge: Chadwyck-Healey, 1978) as Print 11, 916.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 43.
    Taylor, 290; E.A. Wasson, Whig Renaissance: Lord Althorp and the Whig Party, 1782–45 (New York: Garland Publishing, 1987), 39.Google Scholar
  30. 44.
    Richard W. Davis, ‘Whigs in the Age of Fox and Grey’, Parliamentary History, 12:2(1993), 203.Google Scholar
  31. 46.
    Michael A. Rutz, ‘The Politicizing of Evangelical Dissent, 1811–13’, Parliamentary History, 20:2(2001),189.Google Scholar
  32. 47.
    John Clive, Scotch Reviewers: The Edinburgh Review, 1802–15 (London: Faber & Faber 1957), 83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 48.
    Thomas, The Philosophical Radicals: Nine Studies in Theory and Practice, 1817–41 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1979), 47; Jupp, 126; Mitchell, 21.Google Scholar
  34. 49.
    Earl of Ilchester, ed., The Journal of Elizabeth, Lady Holland 1791–1811, 2 vols (London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1908), 11:325–6.Google Scholar
  35. 56.
    Robert Milnes, Parl. Deb., 1st ser., 10(3 February 1808), 295.Google Scholar
  36. 60.
    Whitbread’s speech, Parl. Deb., 1st ser., 10(8 April 1808):1353–6, 1358Google Scholar
  37. 61.
    Henry Brougham, The Life and Times of Henry, Lord Brougham, 3 vols (London: William Blackwood & Sons, 1871), 1:413–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 63.
    Brougham and Francis Jeffrey, ‘Don Pedro Cevallos on the French Usurpation of Spain’, Edinburgh Review (October 1808), 223.Google Scholar
  39. 65.
    Sydney Smith to Francis Jeffrey, October or November 1808, Letters of Sydney Smith Nowell C. Smith ed., 2 vols (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1953), 1:145–6.Google Scholar
  40. Rory Muir, Britain and the Defeat of Napoleon, 1807–15 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996), 260.Google Scholar
  41. 69.
    Polypus (Eaton Stannard Barrett), The Talents Run Mad or 1816 (London: Henry Colburn, 1816), 27–8.Google Scholar
  42. 71.
    Romilly’s speech, Parl Deb., 1st ser., 15(26 January 1810):199.Google Scholar
  43. 74.
    Irving Brock, The Patriots and the Whigs: The Most Dangerous Enemies of the State (London: J.M. Richardson, 1810), 44–5, 4.Google Scholar
  44. 78.
    Nicholas C. Edsall, Richard Cobden: Independent Radical (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1986), 71; Stewart, Henry Brougham, 74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 79.
    Eli F. Hecksher, The Continental System (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1922), 90.Google Scholar
  46. 82.
    Brougham, ‘Late Orders in Council’, Edinburgh Review (January 1808): 484–98.Google Scholar
  47. 86.
    François Crouzet, ‘Towards an Export Economy: British Exports During the Industrial Revolution’, in Britain Ascendant: Comparative Studies in Franco-British Economic History (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990), 222–3.Google Scholar
  48. 87.
    Donald R. Hickey, The War of 1812, A Forgotten Conflict (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1989), 22–3.Google Scholar
  49. B.H. Tolley, The Liverpool Campaign Against the Orders in Council and the War of 1812’, in Liverpool and Merseyside, J.R. Harris ed. (London: Frank Cass & Co., 1969), 109.Google Scholar
  50. 88.
    Arthur Gayer, W.W. Rostow, and Anna Jacobson Schwartz, The Growth and Fluctuation of the British Economy, 1790–1850: An Historical, Statistical, and Theoretical Study of Britain’s Economic Development (Hassocks: Harvester Press, 1975), 109.Google Scholar
  51. 89.
    Peter Fraser, ‘Public Petitioning and Parliament Before 1832’, History, 158(1961):208–9.Google Scholar
  52. 93.
    D.J. Moss, ‘Birmingham and the Campaign against the Orders in Council and the East India Company Charter 1812–13’, Canadian Journal of History, 11.2(1976):176.Google Scholar
  53. J.E. Cookson, The Friends of Peace: Anti-war Liberalism in England., 1793–1815 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982), 226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 96.
    Whitbread’s speech, Parl. Deb., 1st ser., 21(13 February 1812):769–72.Google Scholar
  55. 97.
    Brougham’s speech, Parl. Deb., 1st ser., 21(3 March 1812):1092–8.Google Scholar
  56. 98.
    Baring’s speech, Parl. Deb., 1st ser., 21(3 March 1812): 1126.Google Scholar
  57. 101.
    Castlereagh’s speech, Parl. Deb., 1st ser., 22(29 April 1812): 1092.Google Scholar
  58. 106.
    Rose’s speech, Parl. Deb., 1st ser., 23(16 June 1812):529.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© William Anthony Hay 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • William Anthony Hay

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations