Introduction

  • Tanya Evans

Abstract

Lone mothers captivated the public imagination of the mid-eighteenth century as concern about population decline swept through the corridors of power across the Continent. Many of the great and the good, Jonas Hanway, William Hogarth, as well as many other merchants, noblemen, politicians, artists and writers, became convinced of the need to aid poor women and their children in the promotion of national prosperity, expansion, humanitarianism and self-interest. Despite the increasing ideological significance of motherhood, the experience of pauper motherhood remained much the same during this period. The eighteenth century was characterised by a variety of familial forms, experiences and relationships and many of society’s poorest were forced to follow rocky paths to marriage and motherhood.

Keywords

Eighteenth Century Literacy Skill Poor Woman Unmarried Mother Lone Mother 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 3.
    E.A. Wrigley, ‘Marriage, Fertility and Population Growth in Eighteenth-Century England’, in B. Outhwaite (ed.), Marriage and Society: Studies in the Social History of Marriage (London, 1981).Google Scholar
  2. 4.
    R. Finlay and B. Shearer, ‘Population Growth and Suburban Expansion’, in A.L. Beier and R. Finlay (eds), London 1500–1700: The Making of the Metropolis (Harlow, 1981), p. 46.Google Scholar
  3. 6.
    R. Adair, Courtship, Illegitimacy and Marriage in Early Modern England (Manchester, 1996), pp. 222–223.Google Scholar
  4. 7.
    See also J. Black, ‘Illegitimacy and the Urban Poor in London, 1740–1830’ (PhD thesis, University of London, 1999), pp. 340–347Google Scholar
  5. T. Hitchcock and J. Black (eds), Chelsea Settlement and Bastardy Examinations, 1733–1766 (London, 1999), pp. xvii-xx.Google Scholar
  6. 8.
    See Chapter 2, N. Rogers, ‘Carnal Knowledge: Illegitimacy in Eighteenth-Century Westminster’, Journal of Social History, 23, 1989, pp. 355–375CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. D. Kent, ‘Ubiquitous but Invisible: Female Domestic Servants in Mid-Eighteenth Century London’, History Workshop Journal, 28, 1989, pp. 111–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 10.
    J. Gillis, For Better, For Worse: British Marriages from 1600 to the Present (Oxford, 1985), pp. 5, 110, 114, 163–169, 170, 173.Google Scholar
  9. 11.
    L. Gowing, Domestic Dangers: Women, Words and Sex in Early Modern London (Oxford, 1996), p. 17Google Scholar
  10. 14.
    R. Trumbach, Sex and the Gender Revolution: Heterosexuality and the Third Gender in Enlightenment London, volume one (London, 1998), p. 277Google Scholar
  11. M.D. George, London Life in the Eighteenth Century (London, 1965), p. 55Google Scholar
  12. A. Gunn, ‘Maternity Hospitals’, in F.N.L. Poynter (ed.), The Evolution of Hospitals in Britain (London, 1964), p. 96.Google Scholar
  13. 15.
    L. Gowing, ‘Gender and the Language of Insult in Early Modern London’, History Workshop Journal, 35, 1993, pp. 1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 16.
    L. Stone, The Family, Sex and Marriage in England, 1500–1800, 1990, p. 401.Google Scholar
  15. 18.
    M. Jackson, New-Born Child Murder: Women, Illegitimacy and the Courts in Eighteenth-Century England (Manchester, 1996), pp. 51, 128Google Scholar
  16. 19.
    T. Henderson, Disorderly Women in Eighteenth-Century London: Prostitution and Control in the Metropolis, 1730–1830 (Harlow, 1999), p. 189.Google Scholar
  17. 20.
    L. Gowing, ‘Gender and the Language of Insult in Early Modern London’, History Workshop Journal, 35, 1993, pp. 1–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 21.
    P. Slack, Poverty and Policy in Tudor and Stuart England (London, 1988), p. 182.Google Scholar
  19. 22.
    L.H. Lees, The Solidarities of Strangers: The English Poor Laws and the People, 1700–1948 (Cambridge, 1998), pp. 56–60Google Scholar
  20. T. Hitchcock and J. Black (eds), Chelsea Settlement and Bastardy Examinations, 1733–1766 (London, 1999), p. xx.Google Scholar
  21. 25.
    D. Marshall, The English Poor in the Eighteenth Century: A Study in Social and Administrative History (London, 1926), p. 11.Google Scholar
  22. 28.
    R. Paley, Justice in Eighteenth-Century Hackney: The Justicing Notebook of Henry Norris and the Hackney Petty Sessions (London, 1991), p. xvi.Google Scholar
  23. 30.
    J. Boulton, ‘Going on the Parish: The Parish Pension and its Meaning in the London Suburbs, 1640–1724’, in T. Hitchcock, P. Sharpe and P. King (eds), Chronicling Poverty: The Voices and Strategies of the English Poor, 1640–1840 (Basingstoke, 1997), p. 22Google Scholar
  24. 36.
    D. Cressy, Literacy and the Social Order: Reading and Writing in Tudor and Stuart England (Cambridge, 1980), pp. 10, 27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 37.
    J. Fielding, A Brief Description of the Cities of London and Westminster (London, 1776), p. xxiii.Google Scholar
  26. 39.
    G. Rude, Hanoverian London 1714–1808 (London, 1971), p. 116.Google Scholar
  27. 40.
    V. Neuburg, Popular Education in Eighteenth-Century England (London, 1971), pp. 53–55, 95–107, 121.Google Scholar
  28. 50.
    A. Clark, The Struggle for the Breeches: Gender and the Making of the British Working Class (London, 1995), p. 67Google Scholar
  29. 51.
    N. Wurzbach, The Rise of the English Street Ballads, 1550–1650 (Cambridge, 1990), p. xi.Google Scholar
  30. 52.
    J. Brownlow, The History and Objects of the Foundling Hospital (London, 1865), p. 1.Google Scholar
  31. 53.
    R. McClure, Coram’s Children: The London Foundling Hospital in the Eighteenth Century (London, 1981), p. 141.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Tanya Evans 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tanya Evans

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations