Complex Systems: “Nature,” “Society” and “Human” Domination

  • Erika Cudworth


“Nature,” “society,” and “human” — all are highly contestable terms. Increasingly it is becoming accepted that nature is social, and as such, variably constructed across time, space and place (Soper 1995, Cronon 1995, Mcnaghten and Urry 1998). Some sociologists are questioning prevailing conceptions of “society” (Urry 2000) and more radically, suggesting that sociality is not exclusively human (Benton 1993). Yet as Kay Anderson suggests above, the “human” is also a social construct linked to formations of power, and all ecologisms would agree, albeit in different ways.


World Trade Organization Living System Complexity Theory Emergent Property Causal Power 
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Copyright information

© Erika Cudworth 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Erika Cudworth
    • 1
  1. 1.University of East LondonUK

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