Green social and political theory, or “ecologism” has imploded the boundaries of social science by insisting that we consider the huge diversity of non-human life when thinking about “difference.” Some ecologisms have raised thorny questions of the relationship between the multiplicity of human differences and the enormity of differences within, between and across other species. This chapter provides a critical consideration of four different kinds of ecologism. It examines how dif-ference is theorized, and whether the treatment of difference is linked to social and/or human domination in a systemic way. I am particularly interested in the way theorists understand the impact of social difference and intra-human domination on formations of environmentsociety relations. This prepares the path for Chapter 3, which draws on developments in complexity theory in order to argue that our social relationships toward nature in modernity are characterized by systemic domination, and that the domination of the environment is crosscut by intra-human dominations based on difference.
KeywordsSocial Hierarchy Environmental Justice Social Difference Social Ecology Environmental Exploitation
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