• Gordon Crawford
Part of the International Political Economy Series book series (IPES)


The imposition of political conditionality by donor governments has the stated intention of exerting pressure on recipient governments to implement political reforms broadly along the lines of democratisation and greater respect for civil and political rights. Economic sanctions of various types have been used on many occasions during the twentieth century as an instrument of foreign policy, especially by the more powerful nations.120 Opinions vary as to their worth, but there has long existed a degree of scepticism regarding their effectiveness. Such scepticism may be particularly appropriate for aid sanctions, less likely to have as much impact as trade sanctions, and this was reflected in the literature reviewed in Chapter 1. This chapter assesses how effective political conditionality has been as an instrument of policy reform in the first half of the 1990s.


Political Reform Military Coup Unilateral Action Recipient Government Donor Pressure 
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Copyright information

© Gordon Crawford 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gordon Crawford
    • 1
  1. 1.University of LeedsUK

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