• David Butler
  • Martin Westlake


Before any election campaign, the contestants have to prepare for the contest. Teams are assembled, candidates selected, strategies devised, issues identified, tactics discussed. European elections are no different. But if, as argued in Chapter 1, European elections are second-order national elections, then a number of additional considerations have to be taken into account.


Dust Europe Income Coherence Expense 


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Copyright information

© David Butler and Martin Westlake 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Butler
    • 1
  • Martin Westlake
    • 2
  1. 1.Nuffield CollegeOxfordUK
  2. 2.European Economic and Social CommitteeBrusselsBelgium

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