Although this chapter is focused on innovative election issues, it is as well to begin by acknowledging that the electoral/party sector has also been the scene of innovation in electoral tools, namely political parties, that may also become important political institutions. The democratic political party is an organisational tool for winning the competitive struggle for the people’s vote. As Duverger argued, its having an organisational structure is what distinguishes a party ‘in the true sense of the word’ from a mere faction or a parliamentary group, such as the Jacobins of the French Revolution.1 If a particular party is successful enough for a long enough period, it is likely to be institutionalised and be viewed as one of its democracy’s important political institutions rather than just a tool for winning elections.
KeywordsParty Leader Presidential Campaign Constitutional Reform Creative Response Policy Subsystem
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