Advertisement

Clash of Institutions: Clientelism and Corruption vs. Rule of Law

  • Christoph H. Stefes
Part of the Euro-Asian Studies book series (EAS)

Abstract

Fifteen years after the fall of Soviet rule, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia remain plain examples of post-authoritarian transitions that have gone awry. There are differences between these three countries in terms of their political and economic developments. Freedom House, for example, has consistently ranked Armenia and Georgia above Azerbaijan in terms of economic liberalization and political democratization.1 Moreover, Georgia certainly fares better than Armenia in terms of democratic development, taking into account that Georgia recently witnessed the rise of a young and reformist elite to political power (winter 2003). In contrast, Armenia appears to be stuck with a government that does not tolerate any opposition to its rule, as the brutal crackdown of a recent attempt at replicating Georgia’s ‘Rose Revolution’ has clearly demonstrated (spring 2004).

Keywords

Civil Society Police Officer Supra Note Communist Party Corrupt Activity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 1.
    Freedom House, Nations in Transit (1998–2004). Available at http://freedomhouse.org/research/nattransit.htm.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    See D. Collier and S. Levitsky, ‘Democracy with Adjectives: Conceptual Innovation in Comparative Research’, World Politics, 49 (1997), p. 430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 4.
    R. Dahl, A Preface to Democratic Theory (Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1956).Google Scholar
  4. 5.
    T. Carothers, ‘The Rule of Law Revival’, Foreign Affairs, 77 (2) (1998), p. 96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 7.
    See R. Dahl, Polyarchy, Participation and Opposition (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1971), p. 2.Google Scholar
  6. 8.
    J. Donnelly, ‘Human Rights, Democracy and Development’, Human Rights Quarterly, 21 (1999), pp. 608, 620.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 12.
    J. R. Reitz, ‘Constitutionalism and the Rule of Law: Theoretical Perspectives’, in R. D. Grey, ed., Democratic Theory and Post-Communist Change (Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 1997), p. 113.Google Scholar
  8. 13.
    S. Holmes, ‘Cultural Legacies or State Collapse? Probing the Postcommunist Dilemma’, in M. Mandelbaum, ed., Postcommunism: Four Perspectives (New York: Council on Foreign Relations, 1996), p. 56.Google Scholar
  9. 14.
    G. O’Donnell, ‘Delegative Democracy’, Journal of Democracy, 5 (1994), p. 61.Google Scholar
  10. 15.
    See, for example, L. Diamond, ‘Toward Democratic Consolidation’, Journal of Democracy, 5 (1994), p. 4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 18.
    J. S. Nye, ‘Corruption and Political Development: a Cost-Benefit Analysis’, American Political Science Review, 61 (1967), p. 421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 19.
    K. Simis, ‘The Machinery of Corruption in the Soviet Union’, Survey, 22 (1977), pp. 46, 55.Google Scholar
  13. 20.
    J. Scott, ‘Patron–Client Politics and Political Changes in Southeast Asia’, in S. Schmidt et al., eds, Friends, Followers, and Factions: a Reader in Political Clientelism (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1977), p. 124.Google Scholar
  14. 22.
    F. J. M. Feldbrugge, ‘Government and Shadow Economy’, Soviet Studies, 36 (1984), p. 532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 23.
    K. Simis, USSR: the Corrupt Society (New York: Simon` & Schuster, 1982), p. 55.Google Scholar
  16. 24.
    Supra note 18 at p. 42. M. Voslensky, Nomenklatura: the Soviet Ruling Class (Garden City: Doubleday, 1984), p. 188.Google Scholar
  17. 25.
    J. Tarkowski, ‘Old and New Patterns of Corruption in Poland and the USSR’, Telos, 80 (1989), p. 54.Google Scholar
  18. 26.
    T. Vorozheikina, ‘Clientelism and the Process of Political Democratization in Russia’, in L. Roniger and A. Günes-Ayata, eds, Democracy, Clientelism, and Civil Society (Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 1994), p. 113.Google Scholar
  19. 27.
    I. Bremmer and C. Welt, ‘Armenia’s New Autocrats’, Journal of Democracy, 8 (1997), p. 83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 28.
    Georgian Corruption Research Centre (in collaboration with UNDP), Investigation of Corruption Problems in Georgia (Tbilisi, Georgia, 1998);Google Scholar
  21. A. Aghumian, Corruption in Transitional States: Political, Economic, Legal and Cultural Dimensions. Case Study of Armenia (Yerevan: Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, 2002).Google Scholar
  22. 31.
    US Department of State, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Georgia (1999). Available at http://www.state.gov/www/global/human_rights/1999_hrp_report/georgia.htm. Human Rights Watch, ‘Letter to Mr. Kakhaber Targamadze, Minister of Internal Affairs, and Procurator General Hamlet Babilashvili from May 11, 1998’, unpublished.Google Scholar
  23. 35.
    J. Scott, Comparative Political Corruption (Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall, 1972), p. 508.Google Scholar
  24. 36.
    S. M. Fish, Democracy from Scratch (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1995).Google Scholar
  25. 40.
    I. Bremmer, ‘Post-Soviet Nationalities Theory: Past, Present, and Future’, in I. Bremmer and R. Taras, eds, New States, New Politics: Building the Post-Soviet Nations (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1997), p. 3.Google Scholar
  26. 41.
    J. Devdariani, ‘Georgia’s New Ministers of Interior, State Security Grapple with the Legacy of Mistrust’, in Eurasia Insight (28 November 2001). Available at http://www.eurasianet.org/departments/insight/articles/eav112801a.shtml.Google Scholar
  27. 42.
    M. Ottaway, Democracy Challenged: the Rise of Semi-Authoritarianism (Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, 2003), p. 61.Google Scholar
  28. 43.
    For an extensive analysis of the Georgian system of corruption under Shevardnadze, see C. H. Stefes, ‘The Incompatibilities of Institutionalized Corruption and Democracy in the Former Soviet Union: the Case of Georgia’ (PhD diss., University of Denver, 2002).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Christoph H. Stefes 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Christoph H. Stefes

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations