Conclusion What is Peace? Virtual Peace, Virtuous Peace

  • Oliver P. Richmond
Part of the Rethinking Peace and Conflict Studies book series (RCS)


‘To remember Hiroshima is to commit oneself to peace.’1 ‘Pax lnvictis’2 ‘Virtue runs amok.’3


Civil Society Social Justice Liberal State Epistemic Community Structural Violence 
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  1. 7.
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    See Quincy Wright, The Study of War, University of Chicago Press, 1964, esp. p. 174. 10 Ibid., p. 257. 11 Francis Fukuyama, op. ciL, p. 53. 12 Some notable exceptions are Jarat Chopra, and Tanja Hohe, ‘Participatory Intervention’, Global Governance, Vol. 10,2004; Roland Paris, At Wars End, Cambridge: CUP, 2004; Michael S. Lund, ‘What Kind of Peace is Being Built: Taking Stock of Post-Conflict Peacebuilding and Charting Future Directions’, Paper presented on the 10th Anniversary of Agenda for Peace, International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada, January 2003. 13 Thomas Pogge, World Poverty and Human Rights, Cambridge: Polity, 2002, p. 99. Pogge argues that severe poverty could be prevented by the rich without much of an effect upon their own wealth. 14 Ibid., p. 214. 15 This cliche was often quoted to me during interviews with officials during the fieldwork for this project. 16 This was the conclusion reached by many of my interviewees, official and non-official during fieldwork in the Balkans in January, 2005. 17 This point was made to me by Daniel Fearn, Personal Interview, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, London, 13 January, 2004. 18 President Xanana Gusmao, ‘Peacekeeping and Peacebuilding in Timor Leste’, Seminar on the role of the UN in Timor Leste, Dili, 26th November, 2004. 19 See David Chandler, ‘The Responsibility to Protect: Imposing the Liberal Peace, in Alex Bellamy and Paul Williams, ‘Peace Operations and Global Order’, International Peacekeeping, Vol. 11, No. 1,2004, p. 60. 20 R.J. Rummel, The Just Peace, California: Sage, 1981, p. 11. For anthropological evidence on this matter, see Raymond C. Kelly, Warless Societies and the Origins of War, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2000, p. 108. 21 Henry Kissinger, A World Restored, London: Weid nfeld and Nicolson, 1957, p. 1. 22 Ibid., p. 1. 23 Anthony Giddens, Modernity and Self Identity in the Late Modem Age, Cambridge: Polity Press, 1991, pp. 35–69. 24 Mikkel Vedby Rasmussen, The West, Civil Society, and the Construction of Peace, London: Palgrave, 2003, p. 174. 25 See R.B.J Walker, Inside/Outside: International Relations as Political Theory, Cambridge: CUP, 1992. 26 Mikkel Vedby Rasmussen, op. ciL, p. 113. 27 Franke Wilmer, ‘The Social Reconstruction of Conflict and Reconciliation in the Former Yugoslavia’, in Social Justice, Vol. 24, No. 4, p. 95. 28 See Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri, Empire, Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2000, pp. 183–204. 29 Robert Cooper, The Breaking of Nations, London: Atlantic Books, 2003, p. 111. 30 See Michael Hardt and Antonio Negri, op. ciL, pp. 183–204. 31 Robert Cooper, op. ciL, p. 25. 32 Michael Howard, The Invention of Peace and the Reinvention of War, London: Profile, 2001, p. 5.Google Scholar
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    For more on symbolic terrorism see Oliver P. Richmond ‘Realising Hegemony? New Wars, New Terrorism, and the Roots of Conflict’, Terrorism and Conflict Studies. Vol. 26, No. 4, 2003.Google Scholar
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    Gore Vidal, ‘Black Tuesday’, in The Last Empire, London: Abacus, 2002, pp. 316–324.Google Scholar
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    See William Graham Sumner, War and Other Essays, New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1911.Google Scholar
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    Indeed, much of my fieldwork illustrates that the focus is on the state, and that the economic and social lives of individuals comes a very poor second.Google Scholar
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Copyright information

© Oliver P. Richmond 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Oliver P. Richmond
    • 1
  1. 1.School of International RelationsUniversity of St. AndrewsUK

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