Advertisement

Towards the Peacebuilding Consensus

  • Oliver P. Richmond
Part of the Rethinking Peace and Conflict Studies book series (RCS)

Abstract

‘Without Contraries there is no progression.’1

Keywords

Civil Society Ideal Form International Criminal Court World Society Civil Society Actor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 1.
    William Blake, The Marriage of Heaven and Hell, Oxford Paperbacks, 1975.Google Scholar
  2. 3.
    For more on these ‘generations’ of approaches to ending conflict see Oliver P. Richmond, Maintaining Order, Making Peace, London: Palgrave, 2002.Google Scholar
  3. 4.
    Michael Mandelbaum, The Ideas that Conquered the World, New York: Public Affairs, 2002, p. 6.Google Scholar
  4. 6.
    See Walter Isard, Understanding conflict and the science ofpeace, Cambridge: Blackwell, 1992, esp. chapters 2, 4 and 5.Google Scholar
  5. 7.
    See E.A. Azar, ‘Protracted International Conflicts: Ten Propositions’, in J. Burton and E.A. Azar, International Conflict Resolution: Theory and Practice, Wheatsheaf Books, 1986, p. 29: Ted Robert Gurr, Why Men Rebel, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1970.Google Scholar
  6. 8.
    John Macmillan, ‘Whose Democracy, Which Peace?’ Paper presented at ECPR, Marburg, September 2003, p. 1 and p. 19.Google Scholar
  7. 9.
    Ted Robert Gurr, op. cit.: Dollard, Doob, Miller, Mowrer and Sears, Frustration and Aggression, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1939. See also W. Runciman, Relative Deprivation and Social Injustice, Penguin, 1972, esp. Chapters 2 and 3: L. Berkowitz, Aggression: Its Causes, Consequences and Control, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1993.Google Scholar
  8. 10.
    H. Miall, Oliver Ramsbotham and Tom Woodhouse, Contemporary Conflict Resolution, Cambridge: Polity, 1999, p. 77.Google Scholar
  9. 11.
    For a recent review of mediation see Christopher Mitchell, ‘Mediation and the Ending of Conflicts’, in John Darby and Roger MacGinty, Contemporary Peacemaking, London: Palgrave, 2002, pp. 77–86.Google Scholar
  10. 12.
    On neutrality and partiality see Thomas Princen, Intermediaries in International Conflict, Princeton UP, 1992: On ripe moments and the hurting stalemate, I. William Zartman, The Practical Negotiator, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1982.Google Scholar
  11. 13.
    I. William Zartman, ‘The Timing of Peace Initiatives,’ in John Darby and Roger MacGinty, op. cit., p. 19.Google Scholar
  12. 14.
    Andrew Linklater and John Macmillan, Boundaries in Question, London: Pinters, 1995, p. 5.Google Scholar
  13. 16.
    Norrie MacQueen, United Nations Peacekeeping in Africa Since 1960, London: Longman, 2002, pp. 7–8.Google Scholar
  14. 17.
    Ibid., p. 8.Google Scholar
  15. 18.
    Ibid., p. 12.Google Scholar
  16. 19.
    Erwin A. Schmidl, Peace Operations Between Peace and War, London: Frank Cass, 2000, pp. 7–9.Google Scholar
  17. 20.
    Ibid., p. 9.Google Scholar
  18. 21.
    See Dag Hammarskjold, Summary Study of the Experience Derived From the Establishment and Operation of the Force: Report of the Secretary-General, in Official Records of the General Assembly, Thirteenth Session: Annexes. A/3943, 9 October 1958. New York: United Nations, July 1960, pp. 8–42.Google Scholar
  19. 23.
    Mike Pugh, ‘Peacekeeping and Critical Theory’, Conference Presentation at BISA, LSE, London, 16–18 December, 2002, p. 5.Google Scholar
  20. 24.
    See James A. Stegenga, The United Nations Force in Cyprus, Ohio: Ohio State University, 1968.Google Scholar
  21. 29.
    See Alan James, The Politics of Peacekeeping, London: Chatto & Windus for the International Institute for Strategic Studies, 1969.Google Scholar
  22. 32.
    See Johan Galtung and Carl G. Jacobsen, Searching for Peace: The Road to TRANSCEND, London: Pluto Press, 2000.Google Scholar
  23. 33.
    See for example, John Burton, World Society, Cambridge: CUP, 1972.Google Scholar
  24. 34.
    E.A. Azar, ‘Protracted International Conflicts: Ten Propositions’, in J. Burton and E.A. Azar, op. cit., p. 29.Google Scholar
  25. 35.
    H. Miall (ed.), The Peacemakers, Basingstoke: Macmillan, 1992, pp. 234–237.Google Scholar
  26. 36.
    E.A. Azar, ‘Protracted International Conflicts: Ten Propositions’, in J. Burton and E.A. Azar, International Conflict Resolution, op. cit., p. 29.Google Scholar
  27. 37.
    Edward E. Azar, The Management ofProtracted Social Conflict, Hampshire, UK: Dartmouth Publishing, 1990, pp. 9–12 and p. 155.Google Scholar
  28. 38.
    John Burton, Conflict and Communication, London: Macmillan, 1969, p. 161.Google Scholar
  29. 39.
    See Hugh Miall, ‘What do peace studies contribute distinctively to the study of peace?’, Presentation at the 18th International Peace Research Association Conference, Tampere, Finland, August 2000.Google Scholar
  30. 41.
    John Burton, ‘The History of Conflict Resolution’, in John Burton and E.A. Azar, International Conflict Resolution: Theory and Practice, Brighton: Wheatsheaf Books, 1986, p. 45.Google Scholar
  31. 42.
    For more on this see Deinol Jones, Cosmopolitan Mediation? Conflict Resolution and the Oslo Accords, Manchester University Press, 1999.Google Scholar
  32. 43.
    For a good overview, see Dennis J.D. Sandole, ‘John Burton’s Contribution To Conflict Resolution Theory And Practice: A Personal View’, International Journal ofPeace Studies, Vol. 6, No. 1, 2001.Google Scholar
  33. 44.
    Christopher Mitchell and Michael Banks, Handbook of Conflict Resolution, London: Pinter, 1996, p. x.Google Scholar
  34. 45.
    Ibid., p. x.Google Scholar
  35. 46.
    For more on this see, Oliver P. Richmond, ‘Rethinking Conflict Resolution: The Linkage Problematic between ’Track I’ and “Track II”, Journal of Conflict Studies, Vol. 21, No. 2, 2001.Google Scholar
  36. 47.
    Elizabeth Cousens, ‘Introduction’ in Elizabeth Cousens and C. Kumar, Peacebuilding as Politics, Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2001, pp. 1–20.Google Scholar
  37. 48.
    R. Vayrynen, New Directions in Conflict Theory: Conflict Resolution and Conflict Transformation, London: Sage, 1991, pp. 4–6.Google Scholar
  38. 49.
    John Paul Lederach, Building Peace, Washington D.C.: United States Institute of Peace, 1997, p. 39. See also, J. Lederach, Preparing for Peace: Conflict Transformation Across Cultures, Syracuse: Syracuse University Press, 1995.Google Scholar
  39. 52.
    Boutros Boutros Ghali, An Agenda for Peace: Preventive diplomacy, peacemaking and peace-keeping, A/47/277—S/24111, 17 June 1992.Google Scholar
  40. 54.
    Kofi Annan, cited by Philip Wilkinson, ‘Shaperning the Weapons of Peace: Peace Support Operations and Complex Emergencies’, in Tom Woodhouse and Oliver Ramsbotham, Peacekeeping and Conflict Resolution, London: Frank Cass, 2000, p. 63.Google Scholar
  41. 55.
    Michael S. Lund, ‘What Kind of Peace is Being Built: Taking Stock of Post-Conflict Peacebuilding and Charting Future Directions’, Paper presented on the 10th Anniversary of Agenda for Peace, International Development Research Centre, Ottawa, Canada, January 2003, p. 18. Lund makes the interesting point that this resembles the US Peace Corp of the 1960s.Google Scholar
  42. 56.
    Michael S. Lund, Preventing Violent Conflicts, Washington: USIP, 1996, p. 87.Google Scholar
  43. 57.
    Jarat Chopra, ‘The Space of Peace Maintenance’, Political Geography, Vol. 15 No. 3/4, 1996, p. 338.Google Scholar
  44. 61.
    For more on this development, see Charles T. Call and Susan E. Cook, ‘On Democratisation and Peacebuilding’, Global Governance, Vol. 9, No. 2, 2003, pp. 233–246.Google Scholar
  45. 62.
    Ibid., p. 235.Google Scholar
  46. 63.
    Ibid., p. 238.Google Scholar
  47. 64.
    K. Van der Pijl, Transnational Classes and International Relations, London: Routledge, 1998, p. 131.Google Scholar
  48. 65.
    R.W. Cox, ‘Critical Political Economy’, in B. Hettne (ed.), International Political Economy, London: Zed, 1995, p. 41.Google Scholar
  49. 67.
    For more on this see Chandra Sriram, ‘Revolutions in Accountability’ American University International Law Review, Vol. 19, No. 2, 2003: Charles O. Lerche, ‘Truth Commissions and National Reconciliation: Some Reflections on Theory and Practice.’ in Peace and Conflict Studies, Vol. 7, No. 1, 2000.Google Scholar
  50. 68.
    UN Charter, Chapter VI, Article 36, para. 3.Google Scholar
  51. 73.
    See Commission on Global Governance, Our Global Neighbourhood, Oxford: OUP, 1995, p. 6.Google Scholar
  52. 75.
    Fernand de Varennes, ‘Peace Accords and Ethnic Conflict’, in John Darby and Roger MacGinty, op. cit., p. 152.Google Scholar
  53. 76.
    Ibid., p. 153.Google Scholar
  54. 77.
    Ibid., p. 156.Google Scholar
  55. 78.
    Ian Clark, The Post-Cold War Order: The Spoils of Peace, OUP, 2001, p. 175.Google Scholar
  56. 79.
    Ibid., p. 175.Google Scholar
  57. 80.
    David Rieff, A Bed for the Night, London: Vintage, 2002, p. 10.Google Scholar
  58. 81.
    Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, Oxford: OUP, 1998 [1651], p. 186.Google Scholar
  59. 82.
    Robert Cox, ‘Postscript 1985’, in Robert Keohane (ed.), Neorealism and its Critics, Columbia UP, 1986, p. 242.Google Scholar
  60. 87.
    See Kenneth Boulding, Stable Peace, Austin: University of Texas Press, 1978; E. Luard, War in International Society, London: I.B. Tauris Ltd., 1986; K.J. Holsti, Peace and War: Armed Conflicts and International Order, 1648–1989, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991; Hidemi Suganami, On the causes of war, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1996.Google Scholar
  61. 89.
    Michel Foucault, ‘Truth and Power’ in P. Rabinow (ed.), The Foucault Reader, London: Penguin, 1989, p. 65.Google Scholar
  62. 90.
    Vivienne Jabri, Discourses on Violence, MUP, 1996, pp. 145–67.Google Scholar
  63. 91.
    Ibid., p. 149.Google Scholar
  64. 92.
    Anthony Giddens, Modernity and Self-Identity, Cambridge: Polity, 1991, p. 211.Google Scholar
  65. 93.
    See Johan Galtung, ‘A Structural Theory of Imperialism’ Journal of Peace Research, Vol. 8, 1971, pp. 81–117: David Barash (ed.), Approaches to Peace, Oxford: OUP, 2000.Google Scholar
  66. 94.
    Michael S. Lund, ‘What Kind of Peace is Being Built: Taking Stock of Post-Conflict Peacebuilding and Charting Future Directions’, op. cit., p. 20.Google Scholar
  67. 95.
    Ibid., p. 21.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Oliver P. Richmond 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Oliver P. Richmond
    • 1
  1. 1.School of International RelationsUniversity of St. AndrewsUK

Personalised recommendations